O labelling theory how do crime and deviance become

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o Labelling Theory: How do crime and deviance become defined as such and what are the effects of being labelled as criminal?
- Various studies have linked Canada’s decreasing crime rate to its aging population - Although Aboriginal people represent 2% of the population they account for 15-18% of sentenced custody - Aboriginal women represent 30% of those incarcerate din federal prison - Youth crime, those of aboriginal background are punished more frequently - Explanations; o Differential treatment by criminal justice system (discrimination) o Committing crimes that are more detectable/serious than non-aboriginal people o Socio-structural deprivation of Canada’s aboriginal people o Decline of informal mechanisms of social control o Systemic racism - In Canada, the distribution of crime varies by region and generally increases from east to west, excluding Nova Scotia (higher) and Alberta (lower) - Economic Costs of Crime and Violence: o Direct loss from destruction, vandalism, pollution o Cost associated with transferring of property, replacing stolen items o Loss of productivity due to injured workers/victims o Costs that are spent on illegal substances/gambling, prostitution instead of on legal services o Costs of prevention and protection o Cost of criminal justice system - Social and Psychological Costs: 83% of Canadians are not worried about being home alone and 90% feel safe walking alone in their neighbourhood at night, but high levels of

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