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PTS:1REF:Page 46727.The nurse recognizes that a patient’s diagnosis of a viral infection of the brain’s meningeal layer is supported by which diagnostic laboratory result?b.Leukocytes >10/mm3ANS:BViral infections causing meningitis will produce a white blood cell (leukocyte) count greater than10/mm 3. The chloride level is observed in tuberculous meningitis, the protein level has little clinical significance, and the glucose level is observed in patients with acute bacterial meningitis.PTS:1REF:Page 479 | Table 15-8MULTIPLE RESPONSE
28.Which cranial nerves contain parasympathetic nerves? (Select all that apply.)b. III (oculomotor)c. VII (facial)d. IX (glossopharyngeal)e. X (vagus)ANS:B, C, D, EAll but cranial nerve I (olfactory) contain parasympathetic nerves.PTS:1REF:Page 47329.The sympathetic nervous system primarily serves to protect an individual by doing which of the following? (Select all that apply.)b.Increasing blood sugar levelse.Increasing blood pressureANS:B, C, EIn general, sympathetic stimulation promotes responses that are concerned with the protection of the individual, which include increasing blood sugar levels, temperature, and blood pressure. The remaining options are not protective measures resulting from initiatives made by the sympathetic nervous system.c.Increasing body temperaturePTS:1REF:Page 47630.The aging process brings about what changes to human cells? (Select all that
31.Which statement is true regarding the blood-brain barrier (BBB)? (Select all that a.The BBB is dependent on astrocytes.c.It restricts the flow of large molecules, such as potassium.d.Naturally occurring inflammatory mediators affect the BBB.e.The BBB appears to play a role in slowing down the onset of degenerative brain disease.ANS:A, C, D, EThe BBB is a term used to describe cellular structures that selectively inhibit certain substances in the blood from entering the interstitial spaces of the brain or CSF. This term emphasizes the impermeability of the nervous system to large and potentially harmful molecules. Astrocytes wrap their foot processes around the epithelial cells of brain capillaries, thereby contributing to the formation of the BBB. Tight junctions between capillary endothelial cells form a barrier that regulates the passage of ions (e.g., sodium, potassium) that could interfere with nerve transmission, prevent toxins from entering the brain, and promote transport of nutrients and the removal of metabolites. Hormones, neurotransmitters, and inflammatory mediators can affect BBB permeability. Inhibiting these endogenous chemicals with drug therapy may reduce brain edema and slow the onset of degenerative brain diseases. The statement regarding the meningeal layers of the brain is incorrect.