Research report - National Child Labour Action Programme for South Africa (1).doc

There are also differences between children from

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There are also differences between children from different population groups. For example, while only 9% of white children reported being engaged in work activities with the cut-off of three hours for economic, 41% of African children were so engaged.
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Children aged 5-14 years who appear to be working in contravention of the law account for 30% plus of the children working in economic activities. This holds across all hour-based categories where there are sufficient observations for reliable disaggregation, with the proportion of illegal work increasing with the number of hours worked. Of those children working illegally, more than 70% work in family businesses . While such children are assisting their family in ‘carrying on’ a business – and as such are technically employed – it will often be very difficult to prove since both the family and the child are likely to deny this. Of the children engaged in narrowly-defined ‘economic’ work for three hours or more, a full 61% (2,1 million) said they were exposed to hazardous conditions , 2% (58 000) said that they had suffered illness related to their work, and 4% (153 000) said they had been injured at work. If all the hours worked by a child per week are taken into consideration older children were more likely to work longer hours than younger children. The average workload per child increases by approximately half an hour per week for each extra year. Children living outside the formal urban areas are also likely to do more work than children living in the formal urban areas. The average child in a formal urban area does approximately 8 hours of work a week compared to 11 hours a week for children outside formal urban areas. There are no significant differences between informal urban, other rural areas and commercial farms. African and coloured children in formal urban areas tend to work longer hours than their white counterparts. 2.2 Worst Forms of Child Labour By the very nature of worst forms of child labour – generally illegal and concealed by the adults and children involved – there is limited access to information, particularly statistics. This is true of most developing and developed countries and South Africa is no exception. The extent of the problem is therefore difficult to gauge with any degree of accuracy, although its nature can be gleaned from reviewing research of a more qualitative nature. While statistical information is lacking, of the activities falling within the definition of the WFCL the following are the only automatic WLFCL that appear to occur in South Africa in significant numbers: bonded labour; trafficking of children; commercial sexual exploitation, including the use, procuring or offering of a child for prostitution or the production of pornography; use, procuring or offering of a child by others for illegal activities.
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