32_Cultural Differences Between Countries The Brazilian and the.pdf

Idv individualism the degree to which a culture

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IDV (Individualism) – the degree to which a culture values the importance of the individual is addressed to in the individualism score. A high scoring indicates that the country views individuality as important, while low scoring indicates that the country rather values the group, i.e. family, tribe, the motherland, etc. MAS (Masculinity) – the degree to which a culture reinforces the traditional role of males and females is addressed to in the masculinity dimension. A more acute degree of gender differentiation is found in high scoring countries, whilst there is less differentiation and discrimination between genders in low scoring countries. Competitiveness, ambition, and the accumulation of wealth are valued in the so-called 'masculine' cultures, whereas relationship and quality of life are valued in the so-called 'feminine' cultures. UAI (Uncertainty Avoidance) - the level of tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity within a culture is addressed to in uncertainty avoidance. A low tolerance for uncertainty and ambiguity is seen in cultures with a high uncertainty avoidance score. These societies tend to be more rule-oriented and based on laws and regulations. A low scoring country, on the other hand, is less concerned about ambiguity and uncertainty. Being it less rule-oriented, it is more ready to accept change, consider new ideas and take more and greater risks. Long-Term Orientation (LTO), opposed to short-term orientation, is a society's "time horizon," or the importance attached to the future, is described in this dimension. Perseverance is valued in cultures with high long-term orientation. According to the cultural dimensions by Hofstede (2001), Brazil and China rank as below:
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Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Innovation & Management · 1989 · Table 1 Geert Hofstede Five Cultural Dimensions (Brazil and China) – from 1 to 120 PDI Power Distance Index IDV Individualism MAS Masculinity UAI Uncertainty Avoidance Index LTO Long-Term Orientation Brazil 69 38 49 76 65 China 80 20 66 30 118 Source: Hofstede (2001) In a graph, Hofstede’s five dimensions can be seen as below: 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 PDI IDV MAS UAI LTO Brazil China Figure 1 The 5D Model of Professor Geert Hofstede - Cultural Comparison Graph (Brazil and China) From 1 to 120 Source: Hofsted (2001) If analyzed through the Hofstede's Dimensions, Brazil’s low level of tolerance for uncertainty is the country’s most proheminent characteristic, for Uncertainty Avoidance (UAI) is the highest Hofstede Dimension index, ranking 76. Strict rules, laws, policies, and regulations are adopted and implemented in order to minimize or reduce this level of uncertainty. The ultimate goal is to eliminate or avoid the unexpected. Therefore, Brazil does not readily accept change and is very risk adverse.
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