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9.Language communicates about reality, but it cannot influence the reality it describes.Answer: FalsePage: 42LO: 4TYPE: ConceptualSOURCE: NewRejoinder: Language both reflects, but also shapes experience. Studies demonstrate the role of language in perpetuating unequal gender relations, and also inequality based on race and ethnicity.10.Language may be a source of power and social control; language perpetuates inequalities between people and between groups because words are used to “keep people in their place.” Answer: TruePage: 44LO: 4TYPE: ConceptualSOURCE: New11.Values are standards that provide criteria by which we evaluate people, objects, and events. They also dictate which behaviors are appropriate and which ones are not.Answer: FalsePage: 45LO: 4TYPE: ConceptualSOURCE: NewRejoinder: Values are collective ideas about what is bad or good, desirable or undesirable in any particular culture. However, they do not dictate which behaviors are appropriate and which ones are not. Norms are established rules for behavior.12. Sociologists agree that every culture is guided by a unique shared set of values.Answer: FalsePage: 45LO: 4TYPE: FactualSOURCE: NewRejoinder: In the U.S., for example, sociologists are not in agreement about the extent towhich people share a core set of values.13.Americans are more individualistic than people in Western European countries.Answer: TruePage: 46LO: 4TYPE: FactualSOURCE: New14.Most societies are guided by a shared set of mutually reinforcing values.Answer: FalsePage: 46LO: 4TYPE: ConceptualSOURCE: NewRejoinder: All societies have value contradictions. Values are often mutually exclusively, so that achieving one value makes it difficult, if not impossible, to achieve another.15.In every society a gap exists between the values that people profess to hold, and their 32
actual behavior which may not be consistent with those values.Answer: TruePage: 46LO: 4TYPE: FactualSOURCE: New16.Because mores govern behavior considered essential to the stability of society, they are always codified into laws and punishable with formal sanctions.Answer: FalsePage: 47LO: 5TYPE: ConceptualSOURCE: NewRejoinder: Although mores are considered more socially important than folkways, they are still not always written into law, and may be subject to formal or informal sanctions, depending on the situation. 17.Most technological changes in a society are modifications of existing technologies.Answer: TruePage: 48LO: 6TYPE: FactualSOURCE: New18.Because cultures tend to be integrated, all parts of any given culture will tend to change at the same pace.Answer: FalsePage: 48LO: 6TYPE: ConceptualSOURCE: NewRejoinder: Material culture, such as technology, changes more rapidly than nonmaterial culture, such as morals and ethics. This creates a situation termed cultural lag. 19.The United States is considered a heterogeneous society, meaning that it includes peoplewho are dissimilar in regard to social characteristics such as religion, income, or race/ethnicity.