Grinding o can figure out the diet from the teeth

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grinding o Can figure out the diet from the teeth Examples: o Insectivore long incisors (dental comb) o Frugivore tall, flat incisors o Folivore (herbivores) Gorillas; broad, grinding molars o Carnivore long, sharp canines (but gorillas have them too, although not carnivores) No primates are primarily carnivores Canines are mainly used for threats and not eating o Omnivore humans; a combination of all of these (nothing too extreme); not threatening canines means a different way of diffusing tension Generalized dentition (10.18.16) *Handout in email *know general dates (MYA) Why do anthropologists study non-human primates? Common ancestors Compare anatomy to determine some traits and habits Hominin Macroevolution; part 1: Bipedal clues, bipedal blues Miocene 23-5 MYA Early Pliocene 5-2.5 MYA Late Pliocene 2.5-1.8 MYA Early Pliestocene 1.8 MYA – 300,000 YA Late Pliestocene 300,000-10,000 YA Hominin vs Hominoid:
Hominin – all the forms of organisms of primates of our ancestor since the split of our common ancestor with Chimps (the first branch after ours); humans and human ancestors since the split with chimps and bonobos Differences: o Don’t have to eat constantly o Bipedalism o Ability to use sambals (language) o Less hair o Omnivores o Intelligence o Teeth structure o Very long childhoods; develop very slowly Derived traits: Gracile dentition and flat face bipedal humans, chimps, bonobos, gorillas, and ancestors Hominoids apes and ancestors Miocene: (23-5 MYA) Diversity of Apes: Ramapithecus (pithocus=ape) Dryopithecus Sivapithecus skull looks a lot like a modern orangutan Gigantopithecus Hogopans o No fossil evidence o Hypothetical ancestor of Gorillas to Homos o Possible features/traits: (ancestral traits for gorillas to Homos) Opposable thumbs Dark fur Knuckle walker Tool user Semi intelligent Possible Bipeds? Hominins? Orrorin Tungenensis Sahelanthropus tchadensis These were possible bipeds of the Miocene Earliest biped in this list? (possible test question)
Early Pliocene: 3 or 4 potential hominin genera o (gracile) Australopithecus o Laetoli (in Tanzania) fossilized footprints; proof of bipedalism o Ardipithecus probably a biped from bone structure o Kenyanthropus a hominin due to flat face o Homo neledi don’t have dates or times for this yet Looks like a cross between human and gracile So far back in the cave it would only make sense to be a burial ground Purposely buried their dead Possible it dates to Pliocene best case for ancestor Also possible to be more recent Bipedalism: How can you tell if a fossil creature is bipedal? o A lot of costs to be bipedal Primate Locomotion: Quadroped (lions) o Terrestrial vs arboreal (terrestrial have flat toes; arboreal has curved toes; o Arms and legs are the same length o Blade shaped pelvis Knucklewaler (apes) o Longer arms compared to legs (hind legs) o Long fingers o Big knuckles o Blade shaped pelvis Brachiation (swinging from branch to branch; monkey) o Very long arms compared to legs o

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