All of the above core values can be seen expressed in

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human impulses and inclinations) (Sethi, Namiki and Swanson, 1984). All of the above core values can be seen expressed in Japanese corporate life, often in terms of the relationship between managers and staff, or between colleagues. For example, the word amae originally comes from the word “amaru” which means to depend and presume on another’s life; to seek and bask in another’s indulgence (Sethi et al, 1984). It is a state of mind that describes a desire to be passively loved and to be protected. This relationship is similar as in a mother-child relationship where the mother (multinational company) is obliged to take care of her children’s lives (Japanese employees). In order to be protected and loved by their mother, the children (Japanese employees) have to obey and follow the command of their mother. This cultural characteristic has resulted in a close interdependent relationship between Japanese employees and their organisations. 3. HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PRACTICES The personnel and human resources management practices of Japanese companies are mainly oriented towards people and their development. There are some specific characteristics, which are not found in the traditional western management system. Some of these distinct characteristics are the life time employment, seniority based promotion and wage system and groupism. Growing global interdependence and the logic of customer, industry and alliances are bringing considerable degree of convergence to Japanese managerial work goals. In a recent study, it was suggested that there is an evident erosion of the distinctive features of the classical Japanese management such as internal labour market, deep socialisation, and lifetime employment etc. Learning has emerged as the dominating work goals of the managers (Okachi, Pearson, and Chatterjee, 2001). Nevertheless, it is interesting to examine the fundamentals of the Japanese HRM system which has emerged in the post WWII period,
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9 conscious of the fact that global pressures are bringing changes to the system, but also acknowledging that large Japanese corporations in particular are reluctant to completely abandon established and previously successful practices. 3.1 Lifetime Employment: The lifetime employment system involves hiring people who have just graduated a high rate of stability among employees and guaranteeing work until the mandatory retirement age. The system is oriented towards human relations, human development and training guaranteed employment, equality, participation and welfare. Thus, in a Japanese company, employees are "born", and develop in terms of work as shown in the picture. 3.2 Seniority based promotion and wage system: The promotion from lower level to immediate higher level is mostly based on seniority. However, the pace of promotion is very slow though. It does not mean to say that promotion does not take account of performance evaluation and qualification of the employee. Higher weight age is given to senior person, or on the number of years he or she has worked with the company. Wage structure is also based on seniority.
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