7. So, general happiness, which is the sum of all individuals’ happiness [sum of each person’s happiness], is desirable as an end. (So, G) Critique to 1. a. Objectivism in Ethics: The belief that certain things, especially moral truths, exist independently of human knowledge or perception of them. b. Normative Cultural Relativism: A theory that claims there are no universally valid moral principles. The moral rightness and wrongness of actions varies from society to society. c. Normative Ethical Subjectivism: Claims there are no universally valid moral principles. An act is morally right only if the person judging the act approves of it. d. Moral Skepticism: Theory that claims that no one has moral knowledge and no one is able to have moral knowledge, holds that we are never justified in believing a moral claim to be true or false. e. Moral Nihilism: Claim that nothing is intrinsically moral or immoral. 2. a. Validity: A deductive argument is valid if and only if it takes a form that makes it impossible for the premises to be true and the conclusion false. b. Invalidity: A deductive argument is invalid if it is possible that the premises are true and the conclusion false. c. Soundness: A deductive argument is sound if and only if it is valid and all of its premises are true. d. Cogent: An argument that is appealing to the intellect or powers of reasoning. 3. One of Smith’s findings that is mentioned in David Brooks’ paper is that newly emerging adults have a small moral vocabulary. This means that not only do young adults not care about current moral issues, but they are unable to accurately articulate their thoughts on the problems due to a depleted vocabulary. This is worrisome because it means that people are not able to express their thoughts correctly which often leads them to just ignore matters that require moral vocabulary. KANT: 1. A hypothetical imperative tells you what to do in order to achieve a particular goal. They tell you how to act in order to reach a specific goal. The hypothetical imperative is an imperative toward some end; one must will the means toward that end but it is hypothetical because only when willing the end one must will the means. The two types of hypothetical imperatives are the Rules of Skill and Counsels of prudence. Rules of skill (hypothetical imperative that have an end other than happiness): Exercise so as to maintain your health. Counsels of Prudence (hypothetical imperative with happiness as their end): Make friends so as to be happy. 2. A hypothetical imperative represents “the practical necessity of a possible action as means to somethings else that is willed (or at least which one might possibly will).” A categorical imperative is one that represents “an action as objectively necessary in itself apart from its relation to a further end.” 3. The two forms of the categorical imperative are: 1. Behave in such a way that a reasonable generalization of your action to a universal rule will lead to a benefit to a generic person under this universal rule. 2.
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- Fall '09