Frame setting examines effects on audiences from news

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Frame setting: examines effects on audiences from news frames Definesthe issue Determines causefor issue Notes implicationsfor an issue Determines treatmentof issue -Influence can be cognitive or affective -Differences in audience members affect power of framed information -Longitudinal studies best to determine framing effects -Types of frames Gains vs. Losses -Affects choices in uncertain situations
Comm 102: Test 3-People work to avoid losses more than to obtain gains Episodic (specific event) vs. thematic (reported within general context) -Episodic reporting: viewers more likely to blame problems in individuals -Thematic reporting: viewers more likely to see problems as societal Strategy vs. issue -Strategy focuses on candidate’s strategy for campaign -Issues focuses on topics important to election Human interest -Reactions to human interest stories slightly more positive than conflict or personal consequence frames Conflict -Framing in terms of conflict generates more negative feelings than human interest Economic consequences -React more negatively to potential changes/uncertainties if framed in terms of personal or economic consequences Typing limits research and ignores cultural “master frames” RECAP -Framing similar to agenda setting in being based on media coverage -But moves beyond indicating what people should think about, starts to affect what to think -Roots in psychological and sociological work -Studies people’s interpretations of news -Frame building and frame setting cover how frames are formed and what effects they have -Frames generally studied by type; some critiques of this 5. Cultivation-Long-term Television Viewing and Reality Heavy viewers grossly overestimate crime statistics Greatest concern for effect on children Media effects tradition one of most prolific, socially important, and highly scrutinized areas of mass communication research Many studies show TV viewing distorts perception of reality -The Cultural Indicators Project Headed in 1960s by George Gerber Three components -1: Cultivation theory - over time, heavy television viewers develop world views similar to what is seen on television (mean world syndrome) -2: Institutional process analysis - how messages are made, managed, and distributed -3: Message system analysis - the way images are portrayed in media content First study for President Johnson’s Commission of the Causes and Prevention of Violence Mean World Index - measures TV audience perceptions of world violence and aggression Performs content analysis of TV violence annually Focuses on network television broadcast content Investigates cultivation effect of television portrayals regarding age, gender, social behavior, etc. -Cultivation research Two research methods -1: Content analysis of TV programs -2: Survey methods to evaluate viewer perceptions Mean world index Television world distorts reality -Young, energetic, appealing characters -Older people rare and often portray sick or dying characters -

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