Readings in Philippine History
Philippines became one of the first countries in Asia who used the term
Indigenous People (Asian Development Bank, 2002; World Bank, 2007).
The country is
composed of 110 ethno-linguistics groups,
raptly 14-17 million of its population
people of the Philippines
Majority of the IPs are located in Mindanao which consists
of 61 % of the population while 33 % from the Northern Luzon which are mostly situated in
the Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) and the remaining group are from Visayas
In Mindanao there are two main IP groups, the
is used to refer the 18 non-Muslim IP groups in the region.
According to the
Visayans, Lumad means
―of the land‖
The seven listed Islamized group are known to be
the Moro Peoples or the Muslims (Thompson, 2014).
is the collective and most common term used for the IPs in the Cordillera
Their inclination to highland habitat became one of the reasons why
the Spanish conquistadores were not able to convert them into Christianity.
Some of them
live near the rivers and foothills.
Other ethno-linguistic groups in the region are identified as
Ifugao, Ibaloy, Bontoc Isneg, Tinguia
According to Carino (2012) and
Thompson (2014), the term
means people from (i-) the mountain. And lastly, the
, the collective name for eight sub-groups, are found in the Island of Mindoro.
Ethno-Linguistic Map of the Philippines
The IPs, regardless of their unique and distinct culture, belong to the most
disadvantaged group and subjected to racial discrimination (De Vera, 2007; Sanders, 1989).
The timeline (see Figure 18) shows the history of government agencies in the country which