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Muscular layer more prominent as branching continues3. Elastic fibers in the wall aid breathing4. Epithelium changes from psuedostratified ciliated to cuboidal and simple squamous (why?)D. Functions of the respiratory tubes include:1.Distribution of air2. Exchange of gasses between blood and air3. Passage to remove waste gassesIII. LUNGSA. Left and right lungs are separated by the mediastinumB. Enclosed by the diaphragm and thoracic cavityC. Visceral pleural peritoneum is attached to the outsideD. Parietal plural lines the thoracic cavityE. Right lung has three lobes:1. Superior2. Middle3. InferiorF. The left lung has two:1. Superior 2. InferiorG. Each lobe is composed of lobules that contain:
1601. Alveoli, Blood Vessels, Connective TissueIV. INSPIRATIONA. Air forced into lung by atmospheric pressureB. Results from decreased in intra alveolar pressureC. When diaphragm moves down, a partial vacuum createdD. Thoracic cage at the same time moves upE. Atmospheric pressure forces air into bronchial treeF. Expansion aided by surface tension that holds the pleural membrane together(Parietal, Visceral)G. Surfactant reduces surface tension to prevent collapse of the alveoliV. EXPIRATIONA. Elastic recoil of tissues and surface tension within the alveoliB. Thoracic cage pushed downward, diaphragm upwardVI. RESPIRATORY AIR VOLUMESA. Amount of air moving in and out during normal breathing is the tidal volumeB. Additional air that can be inhaled in the inspiratory reserve volume.C. Additional air that can be expired is the expiratory reserve volumeD. Residual air is the air that remain in the lungE. Vital capacity is the maximum amount of air that can be exhaled after taking the deepest breath possibleF. Total lung capacity is (Vital + Residual)G. Air in alveolar dead space is not available.VII.ALVEOLAR VENTILATIONA. Minute Respiratory Volume:(Tidal Volume xBreathing Rate)B. Alveolar Ventilation Rate:((Tidal Volume – Dead Space Air) xRate)C. Alveolar Ventilation Rate is Important in the Gas Exchange Between Alveolar Air andBloodSECTION 2: CONTROL OF BREATHINGI. RESPIRATORY CENTER – MEDULLA OBLONGATA AND PONSA. Located in the medulla and pons of the brain stemB. Respiratory rhythm area included two neuron groups1. Dorsal – Basic Breathing Rhythm2. Ventral – Forceful BreathingC. Pneumotaxic area Regulates the breathing rate
161II. FACTORS THAT AFFECT BREATHINGA. Chemical, stretching of lungs, emotional stateB. Chemo sensitive area are connected to the respiratory center:1. CO2+ H2O create carbonic acid2. This releases H + ions3. Chemo sensitive areas influenced by H +4. Stimulation increases breathing rateC. Chemosensors are found:1. Carotid and aortic arteries2. Sense low O2conditions3. Increase breathing rate if O2is lowD. Inflation reflex: Prevents over distention of lungE. Hyperventilation – CO2decreasesIII. ALVEOLAR GAS EXCHANGEA. Alveoli:1. Air sacs at the distal end of the alveolar duct2. Alveoli may have alternate passage ways into other alveoliB. Respiratory Membrane:1. Alveolar and capillary walls2.