Copy of Anthro 41A Final Review.docx

Religious teaching at the diet of the worms 1521 o

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religious teaching at the Diet of the Worms (1521) o Escapes punishment with the help of Duke Fredrick o Luther is declared an outlaw but still thrives during his long life afterwards Duke Frederick of Saxony: An elector
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o A supporter of Luther and attends the trial and prevents him from getting charged with treason—(Martin Luther refused to recant his 95 Theses) o Arranged for bandits to "kidnap" Luther and hide him form the emperor and the pope for several years in Wartburg Castle While Martin Luther was in hiding, he translated the New Testament’s portion of the Bible into German and sent it out for mass publication— Which was illegal Martin Luther’s Challenge: Challenged the Sale of Indulgences and the Doctrine of Transubstantiation. o Emphasized rationality over mysticism and faith o Conscience instead of rituals and sacraments o Said that every person could commune directly with God without the need of clergy or priests o The study of the Bible as preferred way of learning about God Martin Luther would be excommunicated from the Catholic Church because of his teachings o His followers are also expelled from the Catholic Church and become known as “Lutherans” Emperor Charles I & V: Descended from the Habsburg Family Charles I & V: 1500-1558 Mother is Juan La Loca Father was Philip the Handsome Said to be born under the same signs as Caesar Augustus - Great Roman Emperor Was the Holy Roman Emperor Was the most powerful emperor since the fall of Rome in 476 AD Defender of the Catholic Church and was against the Protestant Reformation begun by Martin Luther His Aunt (Catherine of Aragon) was the first wife to King Henry VIII of England o Gave birth to Mary I—“Bloody Mary” (1516-1558) Charles put pressure on the pope to not approve Henry VIII divorcing Catherine Henry VIII divorced Catherine in 1532 without the pope’s permission o This separated the Roman Catholic Church from England o This also continued the spread of Protestantism and formed the separate Church of England (The Anglican Church) Emperor Charles abducts the throne in 1556 and splits his empire o Gives Spain, the Netherlands, parts of Italy, the Philippines and Spanish colonies to his son (King Phillip II of Spain) Electors award the eastern half of his empire to Charles’ younger brother (Emperor Ferdinand I)
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Charles I Believed: Believed that if he could convert enough people to Christianity that the second coming of Jesus would occur. The Peasants’ War: 1524-1526: The first of many wars that is fueled by the Protestant Reformation and would characterize it over the next 130 years Influenced by Martin Luther’s teachings Peasants rebelled against the nobility in many German provinces While hiding, some of Lutherans followers begin to claim that not only do they not have to pay taxes to the church, but they do not have to pay taxes to the nobility Martin Luther did not support the peasants and urged the nobility to end the rebellion
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