Groups and the differences between them taylor 1981

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groups and the differences between them (Taylor, 1981; Wilder, 1978) Mere division into groups create an outgroup homogeneity effect Perception of outgroup members as more similar to one another than are ingroup members They are alike we are diverse (Ostrom & Sedikides, 1992) As we generally like people we perceive as similar to us and dislike those we perceive as different Tendency toward ingroup bias Mere fact of a group decision leads outsides to overestimate a group’s unanimity Whether a decision is made by majority rule or by a designated group executive People tend to presume that it reflects the entire group’s attitudes (Allison & others, 1985) When the group is our own we are more likely to see diversity The greater our familiarity with a social group the more we see its diversity The less our familiarity the more we stereotype The smaller and less powerful the group the less we attend to the mand the more we stereotype The members of any racial group other than our own look alike
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People of other races do in fact seem to look more alike than do people of one’s own race (Chance & Goldstein, 1981) Own-race bias / cross-race effect / other-race effect The tendency for people to more accurately recognize face of their own race When looking at a face from another racial group Often attend to group rather than to individual features When viewing someone of our own group Less attentive to the race category More attentive to individual details Own-age bias People more accurately recognize people similar to their own age (Wright & Stroud, 2002) - Distinctiveness: Perceiving people who stand out o Distinctive people and vivid or extreme occurrences often capture attention and distort judgments o Distinctive people When someone in a group is made conspicuous Tend to see that person as causing whatever happens (Taylor & Fiske, 1978) People define others by their most distinctive traits and behaviors People take note of those who violate expectations (Battencourt & others, 1997) Demonstrated the attention paid to distinctive people (Langer & Imber, 1980) Asked students to watch a video of a man reading Students paid closer attention when they were led to think he was out of the ordinary e.g. cancer patient, homosexual, millionaire Noticed characteristics that other viewers ignored Evaluation of him was more extreme Perceived him to be much more different from most people Extra attention we pay to distinctive people Creates an illusion that they differ from others more than they really do Distinctiveness feeds self-consciousness Sometimes we misperceive others as reacting to our distinctiveness Self-conscious interactions between a majority and a minority person
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Feel tense even when both are well intentioned (Devine & others, 1996) Majority group members often have beliefs (meta- stereotypes) About how minorities stereotype them (Vorauer & others, 1998) Stigma consciousness
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