Stomatocytes long central paller sickle cells

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Stomatocytes-- Long central paller Sickle Cells (Drapanocyte)-- no central paller, thin elongated cells pointed on each end Hb CC crystals- red crystals formed withing cell membrane. Hb SC crystals--quartz crystals pertruding from cell membrane Target Cells (codocyte)--Hypochromic, thin cell, central area tinted Schisocytes--fragment cells Folded Cells--membrane of cell folded over Helmet Cells-- football helmet shaped cell fragment Acanthocytes (spur cells)-- microcytic, irregularly shaped spicules Burr Cells-- Cells with irregularly shaped blunt processes Tear drop Cells (Dacrocytes)-- in shape of a tear drop Pear shaped cells--one blunt projection similar to a pear
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Leptocytes-- Thin flat, increased central pallor Echinocytes (Crenated)-- equally spaced short projections. Kinezocyte-- 2 central pallor 6. Discuss the followng anemias: A. Iron Deficency (pg. 236) Cause of the anemia- - Iron deficiency anemia develops from inadequate intake, increased need, and chronic blood loss appearance on peripheral smear --mycrocytosis and hypochromia additional tests used in diagnosis -- Serum Iron test (amount of iron bound to transferrin in serum.) --TIBC (indirect measure of transferrin and the available binding sites for iron in plasma) --Transferrin Saturation (percent of transferrin saturated with iron) Biochemistry-- B. Porpherias (Pg. 239) Cause of the anemia— Porphyrias are diseases characterized by impaired production of heme, due to a lack of enzyme in makeup of protoporphyrin 9. The type of porphyria is based on lacking enzyme. The impairments to heme synthesis may be acquired, as with lead poisoning, or hereditary. Appearance on peripheral smear— varied clinical pictures bc the accumulated products deposit in body tissues. Hematologic evidence of the diseases is usually minimal. Additional tests used in diagnosis— When an enzyme is missing the products form earlier stages in the pathway accumulate in the blood and are excreted in urine or feces, allowing for their assay for diagnosis. Biochemistry-- C. Hemoglobinopathies: structural defects in alpha/beta chains (ch. 26) Hemoglobin S— Sickle Cell Anemia Cause of the anemia— RBC’s are deficient in Oxygen causing sickling of cells to occur. Hb S is inherited from parents. Patient can have heterozygous sickle cell trait (Hb AS) or Homozygous (Hb SS). Appearance on peripheral smear— When Hb S is fully oxygentated RBC’s will appear normal on smear. Deoxygenation will cause the RBC’s to sickle Additional tests used in diagnosis— Hemoglobin solubility test( inducing RBC sickling), Alkaline electrophoresis. Biochemistry— alpha2 Beta2 (6 Glu--- Val), indicates that on beta chain at the 6 th position, glutamatic acid is replaced by valine.
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Hemoglobin C— Cause of the anemia— inherited disease mostly found in African americans Appearance on peripheral smear— Hb C short thick crystals are found within RBC’s.
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