1862-63 Santee Sioux stage an uprising in Minnesota under Chief Little Crow. In 1863-64, it spreads to North Dakota and involves the Teton Sioux as well. Thirty-eight Indians are sentenced and hanged. 1853-56 United States acquires 174 million acres of Indian lands through 52 treaties, all of which are subsequently broken by whites. 1844 The first issues of the Cherokee Advocate are published in Oklahoma. Federal soldiers confiscate the press. 1835 Texas declares itself a republic independent from Mexico. The Texas Rangers are organized to campaign against the Comanches. 1834 Congress reorganizes the Indian offices, creating the U.S. Department of Indian Affairs (still within the War Department). The Trade and Intercourse Act redefines the Indian Territory and Permanent Indian Frontier, and gives the army the right to quarantine Indians. 1831 Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that the Indians form "domestic dependent nations" over which the United States is guardian, as over wards. 1830 Indian Removal Act narrowly passes Congress, calling for relocation of eastern Indians to an Indian territory west of the Mississippi River. Cherokees contest it in court, and in 1832, the Supreme Court decides in their favor, but Andrew Jackson ignores the decision. From 1831-39, the Five Civilized tribes of the Southeast are relocated to the Indian Territory. The Cherokee "Trail of Tears" takes place in 1838-39. 1789 U.S. Constitution, several clauses relate the importance and place of American Indians in the new republic.
ONE BOOK, ONE PHILADELPHIA GRAPHIC ARTS CONTEST In this year’s One Book, One Philadelphia selection, The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian, Sherman Alexie tells the story of how Junior’s relationship with his coach helps him overcome some of the difficulties he faced in to school in an environment that was completely different from his home life. In this year’s student contest, we invite students to submit a comic panel telling a story about a teacher who made a positive difference in their life. Eligibility • This contest is open to students in grades six through twelve who attend a Philadelphia public or charter school and who have read either of the One Book, One Philadelphia selections, War Dances or The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian. • All entries should include the name of the student, their home address, telephone number, school name, and teacher name. Deadline Date • Submit your entry to Vera Da Vinci, Office of Secondary School Reform, Education Center – 2 nd floor, 440 North Broad Street, 19130 by February 25, 2011. Winners will be announced by March 5, 2011. Artwork • Students may create their artwork utilizing a software program such as Comic Life, Illustrator, or In Design, or may create their panel without the use of a computerized program.
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