Higher education in developed countries policymakers

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higher education in developed countries, policymakers may be inclined to emphasize the development of an advanced university system even before a majority of the population has gained basic literacy, a policy that has led to gross inequities even in countries at least nominally committed to egalitarian outcomes, such as Tanzania. Empirical studies on the process of structural change lead to the conclusion that the pace and pattern of development can vary according to both domestic and international factors, many of which lie beyond the control of an individual developing nation. Yet despite this variation, structural-change economists argue that one can identify certain patterns occurring in almost all countries during the development process. And these patterns, they argue, may be affected by the choice of development policies pursued by governments in developing countries as well as the international trade and foreign-assistance policies of developed nations. Hence, structural-change analysts are basically optimistic that the “correct” mix of economic policies will generate beneficial patterns of self-sustaining growth. The international-dependence school to which we now turn is, in contrast, much less sanguine and is in many cases downright pessimistic. 3.4 The International-Dependence Revolution During the 1970s, international-dependence models gained increasing support, especially among developing-country intellectuals, as a result of growing disenchantment with both the stages and structural-change models. While this theory to a large degree went out of favor during the 1980s and 1990s, versions of it have enjoyed a resurgence in the twenty-first century as some of its views have been adopted, albeit in modified form, by theorists and leaders of the antiglobalization movement.8 Essentially, international-dependence models view developing countries as beset by institutional, political, and economic rigidities, both domestic and international, and caught up in a dependence and dominance relationship with rich countries. Within this general approach are three major streams of thought: the neocolonial dependence model, the false-paradigm model, and the dualistic-development thesis.
The Neocolonial Dependence Model The first major stream, which we call the neocolonial dependence model, is an indirect outgrowth of Marxist thinking. It attributes the existence and continuance of underdevelopment primarily to the historical evolution of a highly unequal international capitalist system of rich country–poor country relationships. Whether because rich nations are intentionally exploitative or unintentionally neglectful, the coexistence of rich and poor nations in an international system dominated by such unequal power relationships between the center (the developed countries) and the periphery (the developing countries) renders attempts by poor nations to be self- reliant and independent difficult and sometimes even impossible.9 Certain groups in the developing countries

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