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Ample energy resources i.e. coal, petroleum, forests for provision of wood-based fuel and turbulent rivers, which provide hydro-electricity, all of which provide power for industries. Government policies and programs, characterised by a well-organized and planned approach, whereby industries were nationalized so that the state would be in a better position to supervise them effectively. Diverse climatic conditions, which promote the growing of various tropical crops like coffee, rubber, cocoa, maize and fruits. Foreign aid, particularly from the USA for the development of heavy industries e.g. Volta Redonda Steel Works. Good road, railway and telecommunication networks, which link major industrial centres and cities. Development strategies e.g. five-year plans undertaken by the government from 1950. Government funding in sectors such as energy and transport, which increased industrial investment. Market for her industrial products, which enjoy high demand within her large population and in the Latin and Caribbean Central American region. Ample industrial and manual labour, provided by her large population. Development of banking facilities that provided credit facilities. Political stability, which promoted industrial growth. Both skilled and unskilled workers from Brazil‟s large population.Explain the factors that hinder/undermine industrialization in Brazil. (Describe/identify the drawbacks/setbacks to industrialization in Brazil. Identify the problems experienced by Brazil in her efforts to industrialize.)
61 Industrial development in Brazil is hindered by various limitations, such as: Internal poverty and low purchasing power of her population. Poor transport system, particularly in rural areas, where roads are impassable, especially during rainy seasons. Under-exploitation and under-utilization of resources in some regions. Huge closed hinterland. There is little or no economic exploitation in the thick Amazon forest in the north and the vast Grosso plain in the south, which have not been fully penetrated in spite of their high potential. Imperial and neo-colonial exploitation in spite of her attainment of independence in 1822. General World trends e.g. conflicts between the industrialized powers, which have great bearing on her Foreign Trade relations and economy in general. Inadequate investers for promotion of industrial work. The fact that natural resources in Brazil are largely in the hands of multinational companies, thus undermining their exploitation by local companies. Inadequate trained manpower. Huge foreign debt, since a lot of money is spent on debt-repayment, leaving Brazil with little or nothing to invest in industries. Inadequate skills in science and technology, making her unable to fully exploit resources.