The mass of discontented settlers in the chesapeake

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years saw in increase in slave labor and decrease in servant labor. The mass of discontented settlers in the Chesapeake (see LO #29) led to social tensions that erupted in violence in 1676. Led by a settler named Nathaniel Bacon, rebels threatened the elites and the government of the royal colony. While ultimately unsuccessful, Bacon’s Rebellion paved the way for the transition to a economy based on slave labor. The spark for the rebellion was a government policy that banned settlers from encroaching on Indian lands. Intended to prevent violence, the policy angered Virginians who wanted land. They perceived the government as denying them opportunity to gain wealth and rise in status. These disagreements ignited tensions between the social classes that had developed in Virginia society and a brief period of violence, in fact a civil war, erupted. Bacon’s Rebellion did not dislodge the ruling elite but it led to reforms that calmed tempers among white settlers while inflicting greater misery on American Indians and Africans. The Virginia government instituted tax cuts that relieved owners of small farms. It allowed colonists to settle on Indian lands (which led to violence) because war with Indians was preferable to a civil war. Finally, the Rebellion prompted landowners to turn away from indentured servants (who would become free and make demands) to the enslavement of Africans who had no rights. 22. Identify the causes of the Pueblo Revolt in New Mexico.

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