100%(22)22 out of 22 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 8 - 11 out of 13 pages.
environment (Visscher, 2012).Hence, by comparing the experiences of identical twins with those of fraternal twins, who come from separate eggs and share on average half their DNA, researchers can genuinely quantify the extent to which one’s life is affected by the genetic factors. A critical aspect of this study is that determine the heritability of some specific ailments or diseases. In this case, if identical twins are similar to each other concerning psychopathology than fraternal twins are, then vulnerability to the disease must be entirely or partially domiciled in heredity.These two studies of the differences between identical twins to pinpoint the influence of environment and comparing identical twins with fraternal ones to measure the role of hereditary factors have been very important in understanding the interaction between nature and nurture in determining our personalities, behaviour, and vulnerability to disease.8
PSYC6113-18W-O-3C Nature Versus Nurture: An Age-old DebateUNDERSTANDING THE IMPACT OF NURTURE ON PERSONALITYNurture comprises all the variable environmental factors that impact whom one becomes right from early childhood experiences such as how one was reared, our social interactions, and socio-cultural influences.Dr. John Locke was an English philosopher and physician who first defined human characters and traits through the dynamics of a continuity of consciousness. Dr. Locke proposed the theory that the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasaat birth. He claimed that individuals are born without any innate knowledge, thus contradicting Plato´s theory.Though not discounting that genetic influences may exist, proponents of the nurture theory believe that nature does not have a significant impact on traits, and also that one’s behavioural expression come only from the type of environment we were raised. Some studies on infant and child temperament have revealed the most critical evidence supporting nurture theories (Visscher, 2012).As previously mentioned, the American psychologist John Watson, best known for his controversial but elucidating experiments with a young orphan named Little Albert, showed that the acquisition of a phobia could be explained through classical conditioning. John Watson as a strong proponent of environmental learning once said: "Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring themup in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select... regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations and race of his ancestors." (Traynor, 2010).9
PSYC6113-18W-O-3C Nature Versus Nurture: An Age-old DebateA significant scholarly work published by faculty at the Twin Research and Genetic Epidemiology unit at St. Thomas' Hospital in London in 2000, titled Happy Families: A Twin Study of Humour; proposes that a sense of humour is a learned trait, influenced by family and cultural environment, and not genetically determined.