Proximal evaluation is evaluation of a program

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Proximal evaluation is evaluation of a program immediately after its completion. Distal evaluation is evaluation over time. Proximal evaluations have a higher emphasis and are primarily used to establish correlation. Distal evaluations are used a support to the proximal evaluations. Process data is the number of students, number of sessions/lessons, length of sessions/lessons, and how/’when the counseling service(s) is delivered. Perception data measures what participants think they know, believe, or can do, and/or attitudes, knowledge, and skills attained by participants, using self-report measures both before and after the counseling service. Outcome data supports the need for a particular counseling service, primarily classroom guidance lessons or group counseling, and is used to demonstrate the impact (Schelleberg, 2018). Outcome evaluations are sometimes called summative evaluations are quantitative and indicate whether or not a program was successful. Process evaluations, also known as formative evaluations, assess program function, strengths and weaknesses of the program and the “extent to which the program meets the expectations of and serves the target population” (Schellenberg, 2018). Process evaluations aid in determining any needed program improvements that might increase the outcome evaluations. Program evaluation, a component of accountability, is used to determine program effectiveness and shows how students are different as a result of the school counseling program. Program evaluations should include both measures of process and outcome. Three of the most commonly used outcome research methods used by school counselors are nonexperimental, quasiexperimental, and true experimental. The true experimental design establishes cause and
effect, using random sampling and control groups. The quasiexperimental design uses multiple groups or measures without using random assignment. Nonexperimental are generally “one time surveys and single observations and have the least value.” (Schellenberg, 2013). Evaluations should include both proximal and distal outcomes, process and outcome measures, multiple observations, and triangulation, which is multiple sources of data). School counselors should collect and analyze data, which are put into result reports, regularly in order to track progress on programs, their effectiveness and make improvements as needed in order to have a high level of program effectiveness. 3) Student discusses the importance of the school counselor evaluation in relation to the following four major functions of a school counseling program: a. Development and managements b. Implementation c. Accountability d. Systemic change agent

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