Proximal evaluation is evaluation of a program immediately after its completion.
evaluation is evaluation over time.
Proximal evaluations have a higher emphasis and are
primarily used to establish correlation.
Distal evaluations are used a support to the proximal
Process data is the number of students, number of sessions/lessons, length of sessions/lessons,
and how/’when the counseling service(s) is delivered.
Perception data measures what
participants think they know, believe, or can do, and/or attitudes, knowledge, and skills attained
by participants, using self-report measures both before and after the counseling service.
Outcome data supports the need for a particular counseling service, primarily classroom
guidance lessons or group counseling, and is used to demonstrate the impact (Schelleberg, 2018).
Outcome evaluations are sometimes called summative evaluations are quantitative and indicate
whether or not a program was successful.
Process evaluations, also known as formative
evaluations, assess program function, strengths and weaknesses of the program and the “extent to
which the program meets the expectations of and serves the target population” (Schellenberg,
Process evaluations aid in determining any needed program improvements that might
increase the outcome evaluations.
Program evaluation, a component of accountability, is used to determine program effectiveness
and shows how students are different as a result of the school counseling program.
evaluations should include both measures of process and outcome.
Three of the most commonly
used outcome research methods used by school counselors are nonexperimental,
quasiexperimental, and true experimental.
The true experimental design establishes cause and