For disposal Usable by products Energy Heat Environmental Discharges Solids

For disposal usable by products energy heat

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For disposal Usable by-products Energy Heat Environmental Discharges Solids Liquids Gases
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L03 Slide 66 Inventory Data Sources Reports and journal articles Industry data Databases US Life Cycle Inventory Database National Pollutant Release Inventory http:// / GREET (for fuels) Economic input-output models (EIO) LCA software (Process models) GaBi SimaPro openLCA Beta Version!
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L03 Slide 67 US Life Cycle Inventory Database
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L03 Slide 68 US Life Cycle Inventory Database
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L03 Slide 69 US Life Cycle Inventory Database
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L03 Slide 70 US Life Cycle Inventory Database Inputs: Electricity: 1.79 kWh Polypropylene resin: 1.03 kg Colorant: 0.0194 kg
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L03 Slide 71 National Pollutant Release Inventory Emissions of pollutants in Canada by facility Example:
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L03 Slide 72 National Pollutant Release Inventory Emissions of pollutants in Canada by facility Example:
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L03 Slide 73 Systems Flow Diagram (Example: Keyboard) Unit Processes
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L03 Slide 74 Unit Processes ISO 14040 : Unit process : Smallest element considered in the life cycle inventory analysis for which input and output data are quantified Translate to environmental impacts? In this approach, you need to determine the mass of each input and output
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L03 Slide 75 Life Cycle Assessment Framework Goal and scope definition Inventory analysis Impact assessment Interpretation Source: ISO 14040:2006
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L03 Slide 76 Life Cycle Impact Analysis Steps Source: ISO 14040:2006
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L03 Slide 77 Life Cycle Impact Analysis Steps 1. Selection Selection of impact categories, their indicators and the characterization models and the rationale behind these choices 2. Classification Splitting inventoried substances into impact categories 3. Characterization Converting all substances in a category into a common metric 4. Valuation Combining different characterized impacts into a single (or smaller number of) metric(s)
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L03 Slide 78 Classification Grouping substances together Examples: Greenhouse Gases CO 2 , N 2 O, CH 4 , H 2 O, CFCs, O 3 Substances that lead to eutrophication Nitrates, Phosphates, Sewage
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L03 Slide 79 Source: Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA 2006) Summery of Impact Categories
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L03 Slide 80 Characterization Transforms classified flows into impact category indicators via characterization factors Impact category indicators relevant to resources , ecosystems , and human health These condense multiple units into a single common unit for comparison Characterization factors are the result of separate scientific studies on impact assessment (not done for a single LCA study)
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L03 Slide 81 Characterization GHGs - Use GWP weights CO 2 : 1 kg of CO 2 = 1 kg of CO 2 e CH 4 : 1 kg of CH 4 = 28 kg of CO 2 e N 2 O : 1 kg of N 2 O = 265 kg of CO 2 e Can then sum up individual effects into a total (units CO 2 e) For many studies the only LCIA done is global warming Source: IPCC 5 th Assessment Report
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L03 Slide 82 Characterization
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