Sudden realization of a solution to a problem eureka

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Sudden realization of a solution to a problem “Eureka” Obstacles Confirmation Bias We tend to search for information that confirms our beliefs / ignore anything else Fixation Unable to see a problem from a new perspective Mental set – tendency to approach a problem using a solution that has worked before Functional – only think about the function and can’t imagine an alternative use Decision Making & Judgments Seldom use systematic reasoning to make decisions Can be affected by: Representativeness and availability heuristic Representative heuristic Estimating the likelihood of things in terms of how well it represents a particular  prototype Availability heuristic Judge the likelihood of an event based on its availability in memory Overconfidence Tendency to overestimate the accuracy of our knowledge and judgments Belief-perseverance phenomenon Clinging to a belief in the face of contradicting evidence Framing The way an issue is posed   positive or negative Can affect decisions and judgments
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Language Relate sounds to meanings Spoken language consists of: Phonology Sounds of a particular language Semantics Words and meanings Grammar Structure of language Pragmatic How you use the language Language Development Comprehension precedes production Stages of Language Development Cooing – producing a syllable vowel-like sounds Babbling – combines a consonant and vowel sound One-word utterances (ex. ball) Two-word utterances Telegraphic speech Sentence phrase Language Development in the Individual Sensitive period – period when specific skills develop most easily For language – 2 ½  to 7 years old
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Ex. Genie – girl who was imprisoned and isolated by her parents until age 13 and then  couldn’t talk. Explaining Language Development Operant Learning – language is learned through reinforcement Nativist approach – language is “native” or inborn Universal grammar All world’s language shares a common structure Language and Thought Linguistic determination – language determines the way we think Linguistic relativism – language influences our thinking Animals and Language Animals communicate with members of their own species Apes have been taught to communicate using sign language Kanzi (learned sign language) But can they really talk? Acquire language with difficulty Use signs meaningfully but lack syntax Intelligence Socially constructed concept Defined as the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use our knowledge  to adapt to new situations Themes of Intelligence G-factor Gardener’s Theory of multiple intelligences Broader view of intelligence
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Each distinct intelligence
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