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Enzymes in the liver and kidneys transform that

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Enzymes in the liver and kidneys transform that molecule into calcitriol (most active form of vitamin D) Necessary vitamin for absorption of calcium from food in the gastrointestinal tract
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Transdermal Drug Administration Method by which drugs in a patch enter the body Drug absorption most rapid in areas where skin is thin (scrotum, face and scalp) Examples nitroglycerin (prevention of chest pain from coronary artery disease) estradiol (estrogen replacement therapy) nicotine (stop smoking alternative)
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Age Related Structural Changes Collagen fibers decrease in number & stiffen Elastic fibers become less elastic Fibroblasts decrease in number Langerhans cells and macrophages decrease in number and become less-efficient phagocytes Oil glands shrink and the skin becomes dry Walls of blood vessels in dermis thicken so decreased nutrient availability leads to thinner skin as subcutaneous fat is lost
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Photodamage Ultraviolet light (UVA and UVB) both damage the skin Acute overexposure causes sunburn DNA damage in epidermal cells can lead to skin cancer UVA produces oxygen free radicals that damage collagen and elastic fibers and lead to wrinkling of the skin
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Burns Destruction of proteins of the skin chemicals, electricity, heat Problems that result shock due to water, plasma and plasma protein loss circulatory & kidney problems from loss of plasma bacterial infection
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Types of Burns First-degree only epidermis (sunburn) Second-degree burn destroys entire epidermis & part of dermis fluid-filled blisters separate epidermis & dermis epidermal derivatives are not damaged heals without grafting in 3 to 4 weeks & may scar Third-degree or full-thickness destroy epidermis, dermis & epidermal derivatives damaged area is numb due to loss of sensory nerves
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Pressure Sores Decubitus ulcers Caused by constant deficiency of blood flow to tissue Areas affected is skin over bony prominence in bedridden patients Preventable with proper care
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