11/11/14 11 21 The next part of the argument: (1) Humans exist. (2) Everything that exists has some cause. (3) So there has been something from eternity. (4) The eternal being is the most powerful being, and is an intelligent being. ------------------------- (C) God exists. Rationale for (4): A cause must have whatever features are found in its effect. 22 “ There was a time then, when there was no knowing being, and when knowledge began to be; or else, there has been always a knowing Being from eternity . If it be said, there was a time when no being had any knowledge, when that eternal being was void of all understanding. I reply, that then it was impossible there should ever have been any knowledge. It being as impossible, that things wholly void of knowledge, and operating blindly, and without any perception, should produce a knowing being, as it is impossible that a triangle should make it self three angles bigger than two right ones. ” (IV.10.5)
11/11/14 12 23 “ Thus from the consideration of our selves, and what we infallibly find in our own constitutions, our reason leads us to the knowledge of this certain and evident truth, that there is an eternal, most powerful, and most knowing Being ; which whether any one will please to call God , it matters not … From what has been said, it is plain to me, we have a more certain knowledge of the existence of a God, than of any thing our senses have not immediately discovered to us. ” (IV.10.6) 24 Wrapping it up: (1) Humans exist. (2) Everything that exists has some cause. (3) So there has been something from eternity. (4) The eternal being is the most powerful being, and is an intelligent being. (5) ‘ God ’ means ‘ the eternal, most powerful, intelligent being that created the world. ’ ------------------------- (C) God exists.
11/11/14 13 25 Evaluating the Argument In (3) Locke concludes that Something has always existed. (Compare: “ Someone is mugged in NYC every five minutes. ” ) In (4) and (5) Locke assumes that There is one thing that has always existed.
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