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ISS_225_Lec_11_Poverty

This sense of frustrated expectations of falling

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This sense of frustrated expectations, of falling behind, of being badly paid breeds resentment and alienation. Wealth is the amount already owned, including stocks, bonds, bank accounts, cars, houses, etc. Studies show that wealth displays even more inequality than income. B. Who Are The Poor? The text suggests that certain groups of people suffer more from poverty than others. 1. Race: African Americans, Hispanics, and Native Americans have higher incidences of poverty. 2. Age: Where at one time the elderly suffered most from poverty, due to Social Security the elderly are no longer in the position they once were. Today, children suffer most from poverty. 3. Gender: “feminization of poverty” Due to divorce, illegitimacy, etc. women are suffering worse from poverty. Increase in single parent households. 4. Education: Persons lacking a high school diploma are disproportionately poor. The higher your education, the higher your income.
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ISS 225 Power, Authority, Exchange Poverty 5. Residence: The rural poor are more chronically poor than the urban poor, more dispersed and less likely to use public assistance. Look at http://www.npc.umich.edu/poverty/ for a good discussion of poverty in the United States including statistics on the degree of poverty among different social groups. II. The Causes of Poverty People's understanding of the causes of poverty directs and limits what they believe government can and should do about it. Theory leads to policy. Public opinion polls show Americans are divided over what they believe causes poverty. See: http://www.npr.org/programs/specials/poll/poverty/ . The causes of poverty speak to the classic conservative vs. liberal debates. A. Conservative Views on the Causes of Poverty Conservatives tend to believe that individual characteristics, attitudes, and values are the primary factors affecting wealth or poverty status. A culture of poverty consists of negative attitudes and values toward work, family, and success that condemn them to lower levels of accomplishment. This argument holds that the poor are present-oriented, lack self-control, possess poor work habits, lack positive aspirations, are lazy, and have weak family structures and relationships (including illegitimacy, lack of family values, divorce, etc). - Conservatives argue that the traditional welfare system encouraged a culture of poverty. B. Liberal Views on the Causes of Poverty Liberals argue that people face more hostile environments than others. Negative environments include racial discrimination, social and cultural customs, peer pressure, crime, and educational limits. People are poor, not because of particular characteristics or values, but due to external barriers to their success. The answer is to attack these outside barriers and lift people out of poverty and provide a safety net to help them overcome these barriers. III.How Public Policy Affects Income
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This sense of frustrated expectations of falling behind of...

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