122 chapter 3 statistics for describing exploring and

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Chapter 13 / Exercise 2
Seeing Through Statistics
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122 Chapter 3 Statistics for Describing, Exploring, and Comparing Data Normal Distribution: Heights from a Simple Random Sam- ple of Women Skewed Distribution: Salaries (in thousands of dollars) of NCAA Football Coaches Boxplots don’t show as much detailed information as histograms or stemplots, so they might not be the best choice when dealing with a single data set. However, box- plots are often great for comparing two or more data sets. When using two or more boxplots for comparing different data sets, graph the boxplots on the same scale so that comparisons can be easily made. Do Women Really Talk More Than Men? The Chapter Problem refers to a study in which daily word counts were obtained for a sample of men and a sample of women. The frequency polygons in Figure 3-1 show that the word counts of men and women are not very different. Use Figure 3-1 along with boxplots and sample statistics to address the issue of whether women really do talk more than men. The STATDISK-generated boxplots shown below suggest that the numbers of words spoken by men and women are not very different. (Figure 3-1 also suggested that they are not very different.) The summary statistics in Table 3-3 (reproduced here) also suggest that the numbers of words spoken by men and women are not very different. Based on Figure 3-1, the boxplots shown here, and Table 3-3, it appears that women do not talk more than men. The common belief that women talk more appears to be an unsubstantiated myth. Methods discussed later in this book allow us to analyze this issue more formally. We can conduct a hypothesis test, which is a formal procedure for addressing claims, such as the claim that women talk more than men. (See Example 4 in Section 9-3, in which a hypothesis test is used to establish that there is not sufficient evidence to justify a statement that men and women have different mean numbers of words spoken in a day.) 9 Median Q 1 Q 3 225 4 . 5 35 68 113 Maximum Minimum Figure 3-6 Boxplot of Movie Budget Amounts
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Seeing Through Statistics
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Chapter 13 / Exercise 2
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3-4 Measures of Relative Standing and Boxplots 123 STATDISK Comparing Pulse Rates of Men and Women Using the pulse rates of the 40 females and the 40 males listed in Data Set 1 in Appendix B, use the same scale to construct boxplots for each of the two data sets. What do the boxplots reveal about the data? Shown below are STATDISK-generated boxplots displayed on the same scale. The top boxplot represents the pulse rates of the females, and the bottom boxplot represents the pulse rates of the males. We can see that the pulse rates of fe- males are generally somewhat greater than those of males. When comparing such data sets, we can now include boxplots among the different tools that allow us to make those comparisons. 10 STATDISK Outliers When analyzing data, it is important to identify and consider outliers because they can strongly affect values of some important statistics (such as the mean and standard deviation), and they can also strongly affect important methods discussed later in this book. In Section 2-1 we described outliers as sample values that lie very far away from

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