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Reactions to affective states in the following

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reactions to affective states. In the following sections, we review research findingsconcerning specific links between dynamics of the attachment system and social judgments.Attachment-Figure Availability and Social JudgmentsThe perceived availability of attachment figures has direct implications for theappraisal of others. An affirmative answer to the question about attachment-figure availabilityactivates positive models of others, which may spread to positive appraisals, expectations,and explanations of others’ traits and behaviors. In contrast, a negative answer to thisquestion activates negative models of others, which in turn may negatively bias judgments ofother people. This reasoning implies that insecure attachment, either anxious or avoidant,which results from the perceived unavailability of attachment figures, should be associatedwith more negative judgments of others.
Attachment and social judgment 10The perceived availability of attachment figures can also regulate attitudes related toexploration and caregiving, two of the other behavioral systems discussed by Bowlby(1982/1969). He claimed that the unavailability of attachment figures inhibits the activationof other behavioral systems, because a person without the protection and support of anattachment figure is likely to be so focused on attachment needs and feelings of distress thathe or she lacks the attention and resources necessary to explore the environment and attendempathically to others’ needs. This reasoning implies that attachment insecurity shouldreduce or prevent exploration of new information in making social judgments, favor theformation of rigid, stereotypic judgments, and inhibit the development of a prosocialorientation and a caring attitude toward needy others.Appraisal of others’ traits and behaviors.Numerous studies have provided strongsupport for the hypothesis that attachment-related anxiety and avoidance are associated withnegative appraisals of other people. Individuals who score high on the dimensions ofattachment-related anxiety and/or avoidance have been found to hold a more negative view ofhuman nature (Collins & Read, 1990), use more negative traits to describe relationshippartners (e.g., Feeney & Noller, 1991; Levy, Blatt, & Shaver, 1998), perceive these partnersas less supportive (e.g., Davis, Morris, & Kraus, 1998; Ognibene & Collins, 1998), be lesssatisfied with the support received from others (e.g., Collins & Read, 1990; Larose & Boivin,1997), feel less trust toward partners (e.g., Collins & Read, 1990; Mikulincer, 1998a;Simpson, 1990), and believe that partners do not truly know them (Brennan & Bosson, 1998).Both anxiety and attachment avoidance are also associated with negative expectationsconcerning partner behaviors (e.g., Baldwin et al., 1993; Baldwin et al., 1996; Mikulincer &Arad, 1999). For example, Baldwin et al. (1993) examined the cognitive accessibility ofexpectations concerning partner’s behaviors in a lexical-decision task and found that for bothanxious and avoidant persons, negative partner behaviors (e.g., partner being hurtful) weremore accessible than they were among secure persons. These negative expectations have also

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