Germans had fled through berlin since 1949 west

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3 million E. Germans had fled through Berlin since 1949.West Berlin was an espionage center behind the ‘iron curtain´.West Berlin was a western propaganda center.More immediate reasons:West Germany to join E.E.C. (integration w/ West)Rapid rearmament of W. Germany.Refusal of the West to recognize E. Germany.To turn aside increasing criticism inside the USSR and from China that he was ‘going soft´.To force the west to the bargaining table.à Khrushchev gradually backed downApril 1958: Dulles resigned and dies the following month.à Removes a ‘cold war warrior´ from control of US foreign policy.1959: Two Foreign Ministers Meetings were held / Khrushchev visited the USA and w/ Eisenhower stated:"…that all outstanding international question should be settled not by the application of force but by peaceful means through negotiation."Khrushchev agreed to attend a summit meeting in Paris in 1960.The U-2 Incident:May 5: Khrushchev announced that 4 days previously an American plane had been shot down while flying over the Soviet Union.
CIA agent Powers held by SovietsKhrushchev´s reponse stresses that it was very likely that Eisenhower had known nothing of the plane´s flight / thus it was w/ studied moderation that he responded to the incident.Eisenhower authorizes Herter (Sec. Of State) to assert that the US had the right to spy on the Soviet Union.May 11: Eisenhower assumes personal responsibility for the flights and did not indicate he was going to stop them (did stop them but did not make the decision public)Khrushchev nevertheless went to Paris / told de Gaulle he could not participate until the U-2 affair was settled.Eisenhower announced that further U-2 flights had been cancelled.Khrushchev does not content himself w/ the mere announcement of the suspension (partly b/c "his position in Moscow and within the Soviet bloc might [then] have been gravely weakened")Khrushchev invited back to meeting in Paris but President Press Secretary issued a statement asserting that Soviet participation at the 3 o´clock meeting would be taken as withdrawal of Khrushchev´s conditionsKhrushchev is given a copy of the statement and the conference expires as on the following day he makes a violent attack on Eisenhower.à shifts blame for collapse of the summit from the American President to the ranting Russian leader.By the early 1960s the Cold War situation was ripe for change b/c:Sino-Soviet Split:International relations not bipolar.CCP attacked Khrushchev´s policies w/ regard to the West / brought in the open w/ a series of articles published in CCP newspaper ‘Red Flag´ entitled ‘Long Live Leninism´.Reasons for the Split:Inevitable challenge to Soviet supremacy amongst world communist movement by China / Khrushchev announced the sweeping 1956 changes w/out consulting Chinese angered them.The two countries were at very different stages of post-revolution development (Chinese were closer to their revolution and held far more revolutionary fervor than the Soviets)

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