This allows normative ideas to be viewed as drivers for change rather than as

This allows normative ideas to be viewed as drivers

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norm based, but are based on the routines, habits or cultures that are taken for granted. This allows normative ideas to be viewed as drivers for change, rather than as being limiting. 27 According to Schmidt, Campbell supports the blend of the three traditional institutional theories, rather than attest to DI. Nonetheless, his typology is useful to explain the HI/DI two-step approach used in this thesis.
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88 Schmidt (2010) agrees that an explanation of policy change should include existing structures. However, she suggests that this information should be used as background data to build the basis of a DI explanation which focuses on how ideas and discourse inform policy change. In DI, normative ideas are institutionalised because they achieve legitimacy through value acceptance in answering to the question “What ought one do?” (Schmidt 2008, p. 306). Normative ideas ask how policies or programs meet the expectations, philosophies and norms of the general public (Schmidt 2008, p. 307). Cognitive ideas explain “What is and what to do?” and become accepted because they address the interests of the participants in the agenda setting process (Schmidt 2008, p. 306) . For example, Schmidt’s study about the introduction of new liberal ideas in Great Britain highlights how ideas: “were articulated through a discourse that combined cognitive specialist arguments about the disastrous economic effects of neo-Keynesianism, and the necessity of reform […] , with normative narrative about the benefits of thrift and hard work, which [Thatcher] linked to Victorian values and illustrated through the experience of her grocer father” (Schmidt 2011b, p. 113). In DI, ideas can have influence on three different levels of generality as policy ideas (rapid change), policy programs and public philosophies (slow change). DI views major changes as “objects of explanation in which agents’ constructive ideational and discursive engagements with events become the basis for future ideational (re)construction and actions” (Schmidt 2011b, p. 108). Incremental change is considered in policy change, which is the typical subject of MS. Campbell previously linked the levels of generality of an idea and an idea’s cognitive and normative aspects. Figure 4.1 shows an interpretation of Campbell’s typology of ideas in the context of DI.
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89 Figure 4.1: Extended Typology of Types of Ideas and Their Effects on Policy Making (Campbell 1998, p. 385; Schmidt 2008) Policy level Program level Philosophical level Idea in the foreground of the policy debate Concepts and theories in the foreground of the policy debate Underlying assumptions in the background of the policy debate Cognitive level Policy technical aspect How does the policy offer a solution to a problem Programs Ideas as elite policy prescriptions that help policy makers to chart a clear and specific course of policy action How does a program define a problem Identify a method to solve the problem Paradigms Ideas as elite assumptions that constrain the cognitive range of useful solutions available to policy makers How does a policy and a program ‘mesh’ with paradigm Normative level Policy normative aspect How does a policy
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  • Government, The Land, International Financial Reporting Standards, Financial Accounting Standards Board, Australian Accounting Standards Board, Snow

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