As noted in chapter 4 in the second decade of the

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). As noted in chapter 4 , in the second decade of the nineteenth century American military forces and armed planter bands carried out a series of invasions into Spanish Florida. Porter ( 1951 , 254 ) states bluntly that the origi- nal impulse for these incursions was American expansionism, caused by the 300 Flight to Freedom Figure 30 . Joseph Chatoyer by Agostino Brunias, 1773
same land hunger that targeted Canada at that time, though the objective was later expanded to include securing the frontier against Maroon settle- ments and activities. Having taken formal possession of the Spanish territory in 1821 (following a treaty of cession signed in 1819 ), the American govern- ment moved fairly quickly to expel the Maroons by a policy of persuasion and coercion. In 1823 , under pressure from the American government, the Seminole Indian leaders signed a treaty agreeing to the removal of their peo- ple from the fertile northern areas to an area below Tampa. Mulroy ( 1993 , 27 ) informs us that most of the projected area for the reservation was uncul- tivable swampland, and that during the next few years many Maroons and Indians became wanderers, stealing cattle from White settlers in order to survive. Others refused to abide by the treaty and remained on the “ceded” land. The result was continued friction between Seminoles and White Americans, with further attempts by the latter to herd the Indians and Maroons into reservations in Indian Territory west of the Mississippi, and further resistance by the oppressed. This gradually set the stage for the Second Seminole War (Porter 1943 , 390 421 ; chapter 4 ). The situation relating to the fertile lands around Le Maniel was resolved in a somewhat different manner. The colonial authorities reached an initial agreement with the Maroon leaders in 1785 , in many ways similar to the ear- lier Jamaican treaties, but with the important proviso that they would shift their settlement from their present location to another spot that the French would allocate to them. The French wanted to remove the Maroons because of concern that they would not be controllable in their present habitat, and that the Spanish settlers, who carried on a lucrative business with the Maroons, might influence them against the French. Debbasch asserts that this is exactly what happened, and that it led to the Maroons’ refusal, in the following year, to relocate. However, although the Maroons rejected the pro- posed treaty, they declared that they would cease attacks on the French and return runaways to their overlords for a bounty. They kept their word, at least in regard to attacks against the colonists. In fact, the French considered their word to be so good that requests for land grants in the area multiplied rap- idly. Debbasch ( 1979 , 148 ) considered this as tantamount to a coup on the part of the French, since they were able to resolve the Maroon problem “without having to undergo the humiliation of a formal treaty”.

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