Many of the poorest countries non communicable

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many of the poorest countries - Non-communicable diseases: cancer, mental illness o Most deaths are due to non-communicable conditions such as cardiovascular disease and cancer, they account for about 6 out of every 10 deaths globally o Many of the poorest countries do not have a rate this high, it’s important to note that the rate of N C Ds is increasing even poor countries - Injuries: suicide, car crash, war injuries o Encompass injuries such as suicide, road accidents and homicides o Represents the largest difference between the sexes with injuries accounting for almost 1 in 8 male deaths and 1 in 14 female deaths The three big communicable diseases - HIV
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o Infects white blood cells helper T cells destroying them over time and eventually causing AIDS. HIV/AIDS is the world’s leading infectious disease and has killed over 39 million people to date including 3.2 million children o Is spread from person to person via bodily fluids (semen, vaginal fluids, blood and breast milk o The GBD for this disease is increasing in developing countries and decreasing in developed countries, and it is a leading cause of death in africa - Tuberculosis o Is a bacterium that infects one third of the world’s population. Only 5-10% of those infected will develop an active T B infection – percentage is much higher when co-infected with HIV o TB can be treated with antibiotics, but drug resistance is a major global health problem and is made worse with non-compliance with medications o The GBD for this disease is decreasing in both developing and developed countries with more than half of all cases found in the South-East Asia and Western Pacific Regions – caused 4.77% of deaths in Southeast Asia 2013 - Malaria o Caused by the parasite Plasmodium falciparum which is transmitted between humans by mosquitoes. Malaria is more prevalent but less likely than HIV with 200 million cases and over 500 000 deaths in 2013 primarily in Africa o Malaria is curable using anti-malarial drugs and preventable using insecticide- treated mosquito nets and indoor sprays o The GBD for this disease is extremely small in developed countries and decreasing in developed countries. But the DALY is still as high as 17% in countries such as Gambia Causes of Communicable Disease HIV – children in Africa, almost 90% of global childhood HIV death occurs in the African region – lack of regular HIV testing, limited access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) for mothers and children in rural regions, high level of stigma surrounding HIV particularly in pregnant women Tuberculosis – people in India, approx. 14 of TB cases occur in India – TB is exacerbated by malnutrition and tobacco smoking which are very common, Early TB detection and drug adherence are not emphasized in India’s healthcare system Malaria – Sub-saharan Africa, approx. 90% of malaria cases and deaths occur there – Africa is an ideal climate for mosquitos with long warm spells and intense rainy seasons, human immunity can be relatively low in these regions of Africa
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