2 figure 1 pasco electronics lab board now configure

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Figure 1: PASCO Electronics Lab Board. Now configure the Power Amplifier in Data Studio and attach its poles to those of the third light bulb. In Data Studio set the Signal Generator to output a DC signal with amplitude equal to that of the D-cell batteries you measured. Do the two bulbs (one lit by the battery and one by the Power Amplifier) appear to be of the same brightness? How does the current flowing from the battery compare with that from the Power Amplifier? Is there any difference between these two circuits? You will use the bulb lit by the Power Amplifier as a reference to which you’ll compare brightness of other circuits, therefore leave it connected for now. Figure 2: Basic circuits with batteries in series and parallel. Next you will wire the second battery in series with the first like the circuit in Diagram B of Figure 2. Before doing so predict how the brightness will compare to the reference. Record and explain what you observe. What does the brightness say about the current in this circuit; how much of this current is coming from each of the batteries? Wire the two batteries in parallel as in Diagram C of Figure 2. As before predict how the brightness will compare to the reference. Again explain your observations. How is this case different from the previous? How much current is coming from each of the batteries? Even though both circuits contain the same number of batteries which circuit would drain the batteries the more quickly? Next, incorporate another light bulb. Wire it in parallel and subsequently in series with the first one as in Figure 3. As before make your predictions of the brightness of the bulbs (keep in mind the configuration of the batteries). Do you expect them to be the same in both cases? Assume the two bulbs are of the same resistance and consider how what will be their equivalent resistance R eq in each case. How might this effect the current coming from the battery? Record and explain what you observe. Which configuration produces the most total light and why? Use Ohm’s Law and Eq. 3 to shape your argument. 3
Figure 3: Basic circuits with light bulbs in series and parallel. Disconnect the reference bulb from the Power Amplifier and wire the three bulbs with the two batteries to form the circuit in Figure 4. Before doing so rank the bulbs in order of brightness. How do you predict the brightness of the bulbs will change if you connected a wire from one end of bulb C to the other? Now do so using one of the pieces of wire provided. Where your predictions correct? Explain the observed behavior using Ohm’s Law and what you know about series and parallel configurations. Figure 4: A circuit with both series and parallel configurations. This process of combining circuit elements in series or parallel in order to simplify the analysis can only be done for sufficiently simple circuits. More complex circuits require a more sophisticated method: Kirchhoff’s rules, which allows one to determine the current and or voltage at any point in the circuit. This method will be addressed in the next section.

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