Principle of original horizontal

Turbidity flow cloud of sediment that flows down a

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Turbidity flow- cloud of sediment that flows down a slope underwater because of the density the sediment adds to the water Turbidite- graded sequence due to a turbidity flow Bouma sequence- reflects changing hydrodynamic conditions, graded beds, planar laminae, rippled beds, turbidite mud, hemipelagic mud Flysch- thick sequence of turbidites Cross beds- surface in bed that is oblique to the overall bounding surface, form from dunes, current direction follows how foreset beds merge in to bottomset bed Flute clast- current digs up sediment layer, bulbous end is up current direction Topset bed- parallel to upper bounding surface Foreset bed- oblique angle beds
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Bottomset bed- parallel to bottom bounding surface, foreset bed merge into bottom set bed Surface marking- imprint upper sediment surface Load clast- bulbous protrusions extending downward from a sand layer into an underlying mud or fine sand layer Sand volcanoes- when earthquake breaks permeability layer allowing sand and water to burst up through the layer Disrupted bedding- chaotic layering resulting from clastic dikes Conformable contact- boundary between beds Unconformable contact- interpretation is estimation a) disconformity- parallel beds but with missing layer b) angular unconformity- titled or folded bed below unconformity c) nonconformity- strata deposited over a basement of older crystalline rocks d) buttress unconformity- beds are deposited over a layer with a lot of topography Compaction- progressive burial of sediment that squeezes out the water and reduced pore space, preferred orientation of clay grains produced fissility Pinch and swell structure- lateral variation of thickness Penecontemporaneous structure- folds and faults formed during movement of debris flow and slumping, forms before full lithification Slumping- movement of a partly lithified sediment that goes down a slope Sedimentary basin- low region that is the site of deposition Passive margin basins- tectonically inactive edge of continent Rifting- cracking in earth’s crust Salt intrusions- halokinesis-
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