241 Substituting nonrenewable with renewable energy and resources The process

241 substituting nonrenewable with renewable energy

This preview shows page 50 - 52 out of 136 pages.

2.4.1 Substituting nonrenewable with renewable energy and resources The process of substitution will involve the pro- duction, distribution, and use of energy. While major technical progress has been observed in the production of renewable energy, some of the most serious bottlenecks concern storage, distribution 42 GLOBELICS THEMATIC REVIEW
Image of page 50
nets (grids), and the linking of production to distri- bution nets. Where, for instance, electric vehicles are concerned, both battery technology and insuf- ficient infrastructure have proved to be obstacles. The general picture seems to show a clear agen- da for research, development, and experimenta- tion. But a mobilisation of resources is needed to tackle the existing problems and create incentives for a rapid diffusion of feasible solutions. Polices will need to combine market creations such as feed-in tariffs with polices for technological ex-perimentation. (See Box 4 for the case of solar PV policies in China.) Major problem-based collaborative projects, whether national or transnational, need to be es- tablished in order to overcome bottlenecks. The lo- Box 4. Solar PV policies in China In 2011, the share of installed capacity of solar PV in China increased to almost 5 percent of world solar capacity. This was an increase from only 1 percent of world capacity in 2008 (REN21, 2011). This increase had much to do with the change in national policy that focused primarily on promot-ing the domestic market (Liu & Goldstein, 2012). The policies introduced were The Rooftop Subsidy Program and Golden Sun Demonstration Program. The Rooftop Subsidy Program was formulated by the Ministry of Finance and Ministry of Housing and Urban Rural Development of China in March 2009. This provided subsidies for rooftop systems (upfront RMB 15/W) and for BIPV systems (up-front RMB 20/W) and subsidised 50 percent of the cost of supplying critical components for on-grid PV systems. The Golden Sun Demonstration Program was formulated by the Ministry of Science Sources: Iizuka (2013); Zhang and He (2013). and Technology and National Energy Administra-tion in July 2009. This program supported the large (more than 500Mw) solar PV projects over a period of 2-3 years. Both programs are ongoing. In addition to the above, two rounds of public tender for solar pow- ered projects were implemented in 2009. In 2011, to encourage development further, a National Feed in Tariff (FIT) scheme was announced by the Na-tional Development and Reform Commission (NDRC). In 2012, the National Energy Adminis-tration (NEA) issued the twelfth Five-Year Plan for Renewable Energy Development, demonstrating clearly their plan to invest in renewable energy. This includes especially the use of solar energy in estab-lishing the grid system and mobilising local govern-ment, consumers, and other important actors.
Image of page 51
Image of page 52

You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 136 pages?

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern

Stuck? We have tutors online 24/7 who can help you get unstuck.
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors You can ask You can ask ( soon) You can ask (will expire )
Answers in as fast as 15 minutes
A+ icon
Ask Expert Tutors