establishing and achieving reasonable goals consistent with skills and circumstances optimizing strengths and minimizing weaknessesadapting to environment through a combo of selecting a good environment and making modifications to self or the environment to increase fitusing all 3 components (analytical, creative, practical)How we measure intelligence & distribution of scores Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (1904) - tried to identify children who had trouble in school–Age-graded items usedIQ = MA/CA x 100IQ = intelligence quotientMA = mental ageCA = chronological age–Modern scalesTest norms (standards of normal performance expressed as average scores and therange of scores around the average) from large, representative samplesIQ score of 100 is averageThe Wechsler Scales–Widely used today–Three IQ scores derivedVerbal IQPerformance IQFull-scale IQ–Average is 100Creativity (definition)Ability to produce novel responses appropriate in context and valued by othersIQ and creativity don't correlate well31
–May reflect different types of thinkingIQ - convergent thinking (converging on the best answer to a problem)Creativity - divergent thinking (coming up with a variety of ideas or solutions to aproblem when there is no single correct answer)–But likely still relatedE.g. minimum IQ for creativityIntelligence in infancy Bayley scales:test designed for infants and toddlers ages 1-42 months–Motor scale–Mental scale–Behavior rating scale–Correlations with IQ are low to zero–Developmental quotient (DQ) - how well or how poorly the infant performs in comparison with a large norm group of infants and toddlers of the same ageBest predictors of IQ (from infancy) –Attention, speed of habituation, preference for novelty–Fast information processing -> higher IQIntelligence (childhood) IQ at age 4 predicts later IQ–BUT individual trajectories (patterns of change differ considerably from child to child)–Motivation/testing conditionsIQ gains due to parents who foster achievementIQ drops due to–Poverty–Cumulative deficit hypothesis– Impoverished environments inhibit intellectual growth and negative effects accumulate over timeHead Start program–Immediate gains in IQ–IQ advantages don't last more than 3-4 years–Different attitudes about achievementKids in headstart are prouder of their scholastic achievements than kids not in headstartSuccessful interventions start early, last long, and involve several components–It is better to intervene in preschool rather than later.Changes in creativity from preschool to adolescence 32
Preschool display high levels of divergent thought (generating original ideas)Creative output declines in school-age–Creativity scores increase until 3rd grade, levels off 4th and 5th grade, and declines significantly.
- Spring '11
- Developmental Psychology, human development