establishing and achieving reasonable goals consistent with skills and

Establishing and achieving reasonable goals

This preview shows page 31 - 34 out of 90 pages.

establishing and achieving reasonable goals consistent with skills and circumstances optimizing strengths and minimizing weaknessesadapting to environment through a combo of selecting a good environment and making modifications to self or the environment to increase fitusing all 3 components (analytical, creative, practical)How we measure intelligence & distribution of scores Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale (1904) - tried to identify children who had trouble in schoolAge-graded items usedIQ = MA/CA x 100IQ = intelligence quotientMA = mental ageCA = chronological ageModern scalesTest norms (standards of normal performance expressed as average scores and therange of scores around the average) from large, representative samplesIQ score of 100 is averageThe Wechsler ScalesWidely used todayThree IQ scores derivedVerbal IQPerformance IQFull-scale IQAverage is 100Creativity (definition)Ability to produce novel responses appropriate in context and valued by othersIQ and creativity don't correlate well31
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May reflect different types of thinkingIQ - convergent thinking (converging on the best answer to a problem)Creativity - divergent thinking (coming up with a variety of ideas or solutions to aproblem when there is no single correct answer)But likely still relatedE.g. minimum IQ for creativityIntelligence in infancy Bayley scales:test designed for infants and toddlers ages 1-42 monthsMotor scaleMental scaleBehavior rating scaleCorrelations with IQ are low to zeroDevelopmental quotient (DQ) - how well or how poorly the infant performs in comparison with a large norm group of infants and toddlers of the same ageBest predictors of IQ (from infancy) Attention, speed of habituation, preference for noveltyFast information processing -> higher IQIntelligence (childhood) IQ at age 4 predicts later IQBUT individual trajectories (patterns of change differ considerably from child to child)Motivation/testing conditionsIQ gains due to parents who foster achievementIQ drops due toPovertyCumulative deficit hypothesis– Impoverished environments inhibit intellectual growth and negative effects accumulate over timeHead Start programImmediate gains in IQIQ advantages don't last more than 3-4 yearsDifferent attitudes about achievementKids in headstart are prouder of their scholastic achievements than kids not in headstartSuccessful interventions start early, last long, and involve several componentsIt is better to intervene in preschool rather than later.Changes in creativity from preschool to adolescence 32
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Preschool display high levels of divergent thought (generating original ideas)Creative output declines in school-ageCreativity scores increase until 3rd grade, levels off 4th and 5th grade, and declines significantly.
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