Philosophy Midterm Review Sheet

All forms are universal and unchanging forms are what

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kind. All forms are universal and unchanging. Forms are what truly exist and we know them only in theory, not in knowledge. 2. What are the two main morals of the allegory of the Cave? Be sure to give a detailed description of the Cave and its inhabitants. (Hint: one concerns education, the other concerns those who escape…) - It is ignorant to not question our senses and simply trust everything we see. We cannot use our senses to establish our definition of the universe, we must look deep into our logic and reason to discover it. As well, the prisoner who escapes the chains is unique. He is one of the few who is willing to go out and explore and look for truth, even though at first it blinded him. - 1) The people who escape relate to the people who die and go to heaven. There body is no longer chained, their soul no longer attached to the body, and you grow in knowledge. - 2) Shadows represent things in society such as media, which alter your opinions, they make you see things that aren’t real. Christianity 1. In class, we discussed three kinds of theology. Name and briefly describe each kind. Which of these three is most relevant to philosophy and why? - Revealed Theology: Scripture and Holy Books. Faith - Nature Theology: Nature to gain knowledge of God. Universal and Public, we can all see it. - Spiritual Theology: Mysticism. Experience theology. Private and Individual. Nature theology is more relevant. It is right in front of our face and simply requires questioning and reasoning to fully understand. 2. Name and discuss one major difference between the Old and New Testament accounts of human nature. In the Old Testament there is no life after death. In the New Testament, as long as you trust in Jesus there will be immortality of the soul. 3. Elaborate on the key difference between Greek and Judeo-Christian accounts of human flourishing. Aquinas 1. Explain the four modes of causality discussed in class. - Material Cause - pertains to matter or the “stuff” of the world Efficient Cause - The thing which happened to bring about certain results. Appears in his theory of knowledge about the physical world. Formal Cause – Blueprint, form. Ex) Form of perfect circle exists, all other circles are imperfect copy of formal cause. Final Cause - the goal or purpose toward which a thing is oriented. 2. Is God’s existence known innately ? Is it self-evident to us? (Note: Brian Davies’ text is especially helpful on this point) Why or why not (for both questions)? - God’s existence is innately known to us. God is man’s happiness (beatitude) and to the degree that we all seek happiness and contentment, to that degree we are responding to an innate sense that there is something more (God). -God’s existence is not self-evident to us because what it is to be God is not evident to us. We do not start with knowledge of God, we begin as knowing the world in which we live.
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