Formally establishes the heliocentric theory 17 th

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Formally establishes the heliocentric theory 17 th century Galileo Galilei 1564 – 1642 o Florentine – looks at the universe and lays the groundwork for the scientific method – develops an accurate telescope – validates the heliocentric theory – develops the laws of motion o Controversial in the Catholic Church – his views are more accepted by protestants because they are used to questioning authority o 1616, Catholic Church declares the Copernican theory as heresy o Galileo is very religious – believes God would want him to prove this theory o Galileo writes “Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems: Ptolemaic and Copernican” in 1632 – the Church actually asked him to write it but the
Church gets angry when Galileo demonstrates his bias in the fact that his evidence shows the Copernican theory to be true o 1633 Pope Urban VII declares the Inquisition of Galileo – threatened with torture – Galileo recants his statement and is placed under house arrest for the remainder of his life o In Italy, the scientific advances are stifled because of fear of this happening Francis Bacon 1561 – 1626 o English – formalizes a method of scientific inquiry called empiricism (the empirical method) – says we only know things based on our experiences, our senses, and evidence o Comes up with the inductive method for scientific experimentation – trusting the senses – method to questioning and solving world problems – this was not the way things were done previously – Bacon says we cannot assume something is the way it is because of tradition – this is the foundation for the scientific method – new start for human knowledge – critical questioning – fresh outlook René Descartes 1596 – 1650 o Promotes deductive reasoning: doubts his senses – questions how we know we even exist – gets super philosophical – believes that having an experience of the mind means you are real o Cogmito, ergo sum: I think, Therefore I Am o Cartesian Dualism: all existence divided into the spiritual (your mind and thoughts) and the material or tangible (matter) o Writes a book called “the Discourse on Method” o Developed analytic geometry and the Cartesian Coordinate System o Still very spiritual – believed Cartesian Dualism proved God’s existence – said you can be a believer and be knowledgeable and question the world and the church The Combination of Bacon and Descartes’s ideas form the scientific method Sir Isaac Newton 1642 – 1727 o English – went to Cambridge – takes what other scientists learned and puts them together o “If I have been able to see so far, it is only because I stood on the shoulders of giants” o Principia Mathematica 1687: book that outlines his theories – explains motion and the set principles that can be discovered by human reason o Principles of Universal Gravitation: everything attract everything else – the larger the mass, the greater the pull – exists in the whole universe o The Three Laws of Motion: all objects behave similarly – precise, mathematical, not changing o

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