People in collectivist cultures do exhibit less

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People in collectivist cultures do exhibit less social loafing Women tend to be less individualistic than men exhibit less social loafing - Are the process losses caused by coordination loss or social loafing? o Latane, Williams and Harkins (1979) Instructed participants to shout or clap as loudly as possible Participants were blindfolded and wore headsets Unable to see or hear the performance of others Instructed to shout or clap either alone or along with the group Participants were led to believe they shouted alone or with others When the participants believed five others were also either shouting or clapping They produced one-third less noise than when they thought themselves alone Noise produced by six people shouting or clapping “as loud as you can” Less than three times that produced by one person alone Those who clapped both alone and in groups Did not view themselves as loafing
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Perceived themselves as clapping equally in both situations The top line: Potential productivity of group The middle line: Performance of hypothetical group Participants were alone but thought they were shouting in a group The bottom line: Performance of real group - Karau and Williams (1993) o Meta-analysis of 78 social loafing studies o Proposed the collective effort model (CEM) we social loafed more When it is more difficult to evaluate our contributions evaluation potential In meaningless tasks task valence Simple task task complexity Redundant uniqueness of individual inputs In larger group group size Males and individualistic cultures sex and culture o We loaf more When we expect that our co-workers will be strong contributors Expectations of co-worker performance o We loaf less In cohesive groups When our group’s outcome can be compared to outcomes of other groups Group valence and group level comparisons When the task is challenging, appealing or involving Perceive their efforts as indispensable When people see others in their group as unreliable or as unable to contribute much - Promote collective effort o Less capable individuals strive to keep up with other’s greater productivity (Weber & Hertel, 2007) o Adding incentives or challenging a group to strive for certain standards (Harkins & Szymanski, 1989; Shepperd & Wright, 1989) o Convinced that high effort will bring rewards (Shepperd & Taylor, 1999)
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- Free riders o People who benefit from the group but give little in return - Overcoming social loafing o Identifiable contributions o Task importance o Necessary contributions o Accountability for poor performance o Keep group size small o Increase cohesiveness Social facilitation vs social loafing - Social facilitation o Occurs when people work toward individual goals o Occurs when their efforts can be individually evaluated o Increased exposure to evaluation When made the center of attention people self-consciously monitor their behavior - Social loafing o
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