The last meeting is characterized by a final burst of activity to finish its

The last meeting is characterized by a final burst of

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The last meeting is characterized by a final burst of activity to finish its work - The punctuated-equilibrium model characterizes groups as exhibiting long periods on inertia interspersed with brief revolutionary changes 3. Group Properties: Roles, Norms, Status, Size, and Cohesiveness 1. Introduction 2. Group property 1: roles - Role – a set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit Our behavior varies with each role as we are required to take on numerous roles on and off the job - Role perception – an individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation We get this from friends, books, films, and television - Role expectations – how others believe a person should act in a given situation - Psychological contract – an unwritten agreement that exists between employees and employers. This agreement sets out mutual expectations Violations of this contract were related to greater intentions to quit, while another study found that these contracts were associated with lower levels of productivity, higher levels of theft, and greater work withdrawal. - In France, people are individualistic and power is more asymmetric, contracts are perceived as self- interested yet favoring the more powerful party. - In Canada, where people are individualistic but power is more symmetric, and contracts are perceived as self-interested yet focused on balanced reciprocity. - In China, people are collectivistic and power is more asymmetric, contracts are perceived as going beyond the work context into employees’ lives. - Norway, people are collectivistic but power is more symmetric, contracts are perceived as more relational and based on trust - Role Conflict (282) – a situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations Inter-role conflict – a situation in which the expectations of an individual’s different, separate groups are in opposition Work-family conflict is one of the most significant sources of stress for most employees Multinational organizations also have been shown to lead to dual identification-with the local division and with the international organizations - Role Play and Assimilation Phillip Zimbardo and his associates – created a “prison” in the basement of the Stanford psychology building; hired emotionally stable, physically health, law-abiding students who scored “normal average” on personality tests; randomly assigned them the role of either “Guard” or “prisoner (think back to AP psychology) - These people did not agree with the treatment of prisoners by abusive guards, but when put into that role they became abusive even though their morals did not line up with their actions; the prisoners began to feel and act like they were weaker and inferior 3. Group properties 2: norms (284) Norms – acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members Norms and Emotions
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