● We assume that our partner will be on our same page, but we can’t be sure until we talk about it ○ Abuse ■ Violence by intimate partners chart ● Women are more likely to be the victim of partner violence ○ Particularly sexual assault and simple assault ○ But women are also perpetrators ● Men are more likely to be harmed by strangers or friends and acquaintances ■ Fatal violence ● Females made up 70% of victims killed by an intimate partner in 2007
○ This equates to twice the rate of males ○ Difference cannot be explained by crime rate differences among genders ■ Because men are more likely to encounter violence in general ● 64% of female homicide victims were killed by a family member or intimate partner; only 16% of men ● Children are often present when fatal violence occurs (36% of the time) ■ Distinguishing between types of violence ● “All family violence is abhorrent, but not all family violence is the same. ” - Johnson 1995 ○ Distinguishing is important for providing the right kind of aid/social services/criminal justice reaction ● Intimate terrorism (previously called patriarchal terrorism - these were the assumptions of the past) ○ Systematic abuse with the goal of gaining and displaying control over partner ■ Beatings happen more than once a week and escalate in seriousness over time ■ Most of the time, the victim does not fight back ■ Can often involve other types of abuse ● Minimizing, denying, and blaming ● Coercion, threats, and intimidation ● Emotional abuse ● Isolation ● Using children or money ● Common couple violence ○ Typical family conflicts that occasionally get out of control ■ At least as likely to be enacted by women as by men (if not more likely) ■ Both may participate, or only one; varies by couple ■ Occurs about every 2 months on average ■ Doesn’t usually escalate over time ■ Cultural norm: Women are allowed to engage in violence against men without it being a problem ● Why? ○ Stereotypes about men being more violent ○ Stereotypes that men can take it ○ Stereotype that women have to be protected (“women and children”) ○ Socialized very early on that boys can never hit girls ■ Gender Asymmetry in partner violence? Depends on the sample ● Community survey samples: Women at least as likely, if not more, to use violence ○ Common couple violence
● Shelter and police samples: Nearly all victims are women, nearly all perpetrators are men ○ Intimate terrorism ● Important implications for determining who needs the most help, what kind of help they need, etc. ■ I 3 Theory of Violence ■ Abused partners don’t always leave ● Study of 51 battered women over 2.5 years ○ 33% still in an abusive relationship ○ 23% still in relationship; no violence in the last year ● Why not?
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- Spring '08