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1.)Personality Traits: Nicholson suggests that with age comes more stability and perseveration he believes the impact that they have on attendance motivation is a
8 major determinant of the age-absence relationship. Similar studies have shown that the work attachment of males is higher than that of females. Nicholson states that although there is little research on it, other attachment outside work such as hobbies have the ability to undermine work attachment. 2.)Work Orientation: According to Nicholson, sociologists have given a lot of attention to the extent that employee expectations and needs determine the quality of their work experience. Research has also shown that a disconnection between work orientation and experience is directly related to stress, attendance and dissatisfaction. 3.)Job Involvement: This refers to how an employee fits in with the characteristics and demands of their job. In many cases the relationship is viewed as the employee simply being a dispensable component, in other cases it views the employee as a person. Having the right person for the job is a huge determinant of attendance. 4.)Employment Relationship: Nicholson believes that reward and consequences form a part of high attachment among employees. He believes that high attachment can be achieved by the use of control mechanisms where high attachment may be ‘bought’ through reward systems or ‘enforced’ through punishment systems. The second has been proved to be limited and not as effective as reward systems. Nicholson believes that when there is a system of rewards in place and there is an element of trust in the employee/employer relationship that attachment and attendance will be highest. Nicholson’s model of ‘Attachment’ was developed as a theory to gain a better understanding of the complex topic of absenteeism. It was formed to aid the investigation of the causes of absenteeism. The ‘Attachment’ model allowed the researcher to investigate what motivates employees to attend work. From the literature discussed above factors such as motivation, job satisfaction and the need to feel valued in their role are all variables which form the attachment bond an employee has with their organisation thus leading to the high/low levels of absenteeism an employee has. 2.3. Cost of Absenteeism In 2011 it was estimated that the cost of unauthorised absence for organisations in Ireland was €1.5 billionor €818 per employee, these figures only includerecorded absences within organisations (IBEC, 2011). These costs incurred by an organisation
9 include both direct and indirect costs. Direct costs include payment of salary, replacement costs and overtime. While indirect costs include decrease in productivity, administration, quality of service and any social security contributions an employer makes for an absent employee (Edwards, 2010). Nicholson (1977) argues that the indirect costs that an organisation incurs are the “quid pro quos spent bargaining’ for