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NE101 Lecture Notes

Shaping fingers to grab something put mail into a

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shaping fingers to grab something put mail into a slot Ventral stream (parvocellular): V1 to temporal cortex Derives from fovea of eyes where cones are slow transmission “what” pathway function: object recognition The Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN) to V1 Six layers each of which receives input from one eye Two layers have large cell bodies Magnocellular Layer Other layers have small cell bodies Parvocellular Layer Can also project to V2 & V3, etc... V. Visual Disorders Blindsight – a blind person with total damage to one or both of V1 cortices Can localize and avoid bumping into objects Agnosias Associative Agnosia individuals can see the fine details of things but cannot recognize it perception is intact excellent copying skills can name objects by a different modality – not an anomia Apperceptive Agnosia basic sensation is intact can perceive features (color, shape) can not group features into a gestalt
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can not copy picture Cortical asymmetry in facial processing Prosopagnosia cannot identify a person damage to the ventral “what” system form of apperceptive agnosia Recognizing specific classes of objects fusiform face area – activated more during face recognition than regular object recognition November 12, 2012: Learning and Memory Multiple memory systems Hippocampus: declarative memory – facts Striatum: Procedural memory - complicated motor/cognitive skills Amygdala: Emotional memory – attractions, aversions Declarative memory Case study: HM Characterized himself by childhood memories, activities, relatives He was even-tempered, and funny He had impaired internal sense of hunger & pain and olfactory discrimination Described his picture as older than expected He was intensely forgetful Preserved and impaired domains PRESERVED: perceptual, motor, cognitive functions retrograde: remote memory anterograde: short-term and working memory implicit: perceptual memory, skills and habits IMPAIRED: global memory (verbal and nonverbal) Recent memory (11 yrs) new long-term memories for all materials and test formats explicit (declarative): episodic, semantic Early experimental analyses focused on simple maze learning as a model for theory testing Do rats learn a particular turning response that was reinforced or do they remember the place where the reward was found? Place vs. response learning Humans: procedural vs. declarative memory in probabilistic learning Parkinson's patients (striatum degeneration) are impaired in procedural memory but intact in declarative memory Humans: emotional conditioning vs. declarative memory November 14, 2012: Learning and Memory “Why does hippocampus = memory?” Functions: Episodic memory: memory for the temporal organization of events in experiences Cognitive mapping:
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