Masculinity ● Dominance of tough social values are achievement, assertiveness, competition and material success ● Competitiveness and work are priorities ○ Highly masculine cultures: emphasise earnings, recognition, advancement, challenge and wealth Femininity ● Dominance of tender social values such as personal relationships, care of others and quality of life, gender roles are less distinct ○ Highly feminine cultures: emphasises employee well-being, cooperation, friendly atmosphere, employment security and group decision making Time horizon orientation describes the time horizon, assess the sense of immediacy within a culture, whether gratification should be immediate or deferred Cultures high in long-term orientation ● Values perseverance and thrift ● Respect of tradition and family values ● Accept slow results ● Believe in savings and willingness to invest for the future Short-term orientation cultures ● Value immediate stability and income ● Care more about immediate gratification than long-term fulfillment Managing cultural change ● Recognising cultural differences (and similarities) across countries ● An understanding how culture impacts on particular aspects of business. ● Managing cultural differences (and similarities) in an informed way so as to mitigate cross-cultural risk ○ Avoid large cultural clashes → Looking for similar cultures ○ Bridge cultural distance, ■ Build a very strong global company culture → but may not overpower national cultural differences ■ Improve cross-cultural skills versus ethnocentricity ■ Get local partners to present “local face” (e.g. locals as subsidiary managers, JV partners…)
LISA YANG IBUS20002 Business in the Global Economy ● Tap on locals’ cultural understanding, know-how, business networks ● Harness cultural distance - strategic use of cross-cultural teams for innovation/problem-solving Ethnocentrism ● the tendency to hold the values, beliefs and norms of one’s own culture as the “right” ones ○ regarding people from other cultures as backward, stupid, weird… ● emphasise our own group’s positive characteristics and emphasise the negative traits of other groups. Recommendations: ● Being conscious of ethnocentric bias ● Use opportunities for cross-cultural exposure (travel, learn another language…) ● Numerous forms of cross-cultural training available (expatriation, cross-cultural teams, negotiations..) ● Increase diversity of management teams ● Strategies ○ Assume that people are different, not similar ○ Delay judgement: treat your interpretations of others’ behaviour as temporary and subject to further analysis ○ View cultural understanding as a never-ending process ○ Practice putting yourself in other people's’ shoes ○ Do not assume that all individuals in a culture behave and think identically (sub-cultures, individuals) ○ Avoid stereotypes POLITICAL, LEGAL AND ECONOMIC DIMENSIONS POLITICAL DIMENSION Totalitarianism:
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