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oThe act of punishing; suffering, pain, or loss that serves as retribution; penaltyinflicted on an offender through judicial procedure; severe, rough, or disastrous treatment.Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_6.8.5 – Discuss the undesirable side effects of using punishment, including spanking; describe the three basic tools available to control simple learning and the guidelines for wisely using punishment; and explain why using punishment can become “habit-forming.”oAddiction is a learned behavior because the initial pleasure or enjoyment was rewarding. According to the principles of operant conditioning, rewarded behaviors will increase. Of particular concern is that most addictive substances and activities are immediately rewarding. Research has taught us that when we immediately reward a behavior people (and animals) learn it more quickly. This also explains why the addictive substance or activity tends to replace other, more healthy sources of reward. These other types of rewards are frequently delayed (such as the return of good health). An unfortunate cycle also develops. As addiction progresses, the availability of natural, healthy pleasures (rewards) decline due to the addiction. Friendships are strained. Loved ones become bitter. Meaningful jobs or hobbies are lost or abandoned. When this happens, addicted people become more and more dependent on their addiction as their sole source of reward. This creates an unfortunate but powerful addictive cycle.Gateway Question 6.9: What is cognitive learning?Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_6.9.1 – Define cognitive learning; discuss latent learning, including a description of Tolman’s experiments and examples of this type of learning in both humans and animals; and explain how latent learning can occur in the absence of reinforcement and how, for humans, it is related to the anticipation of a future reward. oLearningthat is concerned with acquisition of problem-solving abilities and with intelligence and conscious thought; a theory that defineslearningas a behavioral change based on the acquisition of information about the environment.Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_6.9.2 – Describe and provide examples of how animals and people form cognitive maps even in relatively simple learning situations.oA mental representation of one's physical environment.
(Add 1,000 or more words beyond question word count of 1,384)Learning Objective PGAT_COON_2016_6.9.3 – Discuss how feedback, or knowledge of results (KR), is a key component of cognitive learning and how it can be used to aid learning and improve one’s performance; and explain why feedback is most effective when it is immediate, detailed, and frequent.oProcess in which the effect or output of an action is 'returned' (fed-back) to modify the next action.Feedbackis essential to the working and survival of all regulatory mechanisms found throughout living and non-living nature, and in man-made systems such as education system and economy.