Butterfat: Also known as milkfat, this is the fatty portion of milk. Milk and cream are often sold according to the amount of butterfat they contain. In the United States, there are federal standards for butterfat content of dairy products. Calf: A young female dairy animal before she has matured. A young male is called a bull calf. Casein: The dominant protein (80 percent) in cow’s milk. Casein is vital to cheesemaking, and has a variety of uses in manufacturing as well. Cream: Milk is separated by large machines in bulk. Cream is the high-fat milk product separated from milk. The cream is processed and used to produce various products with varying names, such as “heavy cream” or “whipping cream.” Cream contains at least 18% milk fat. Some cream is dried and powdered and some is condensed by evaporation and canned. Dry Cows: A cow that is not producing milk (lactating). The “dry” period lasts 50-70 days when a cow is preparing to give birth to a calf, which begins a new lactation period. Forage: Cow feed that is high in fiber and low in digestible nutrients. Examples include whole plants of corn, small grains (such as oats, barley, or wheat), legumes and grasses. Fresh Cow: A cow that has recently given birth to a calf. Hay: Dried feed such as rye, alfalfa, clover, grass and oats, which is used as a food source for dairy cows. A hay pasture is mowed and the trimmings dry in the sun for two to three days. The hay is then gathered by a piece of farm machinery called a baler that processes it into varying sizes of bales, which can be rectangular or round. Heifer: A female dairy animal that has yet to give birth to a calf. Herd: A grouping of cows on a dairy farm. Cows are often placed into herds with other cows of their age or milking status such as dry cows and heifers. Holstein: A black and white dairy cow (though there are some “Red Holsteins”) that is the most predominant breed of dairy cattle worldwide. The Holstein originated in the province of Friesland, The Netherlands. They are known for having the highest milk production of all of the breeds of dairy cattle. Milking Parlor: A specialized area on the dairy farm where the milking process is performed. Cows are brought into the parlor two or three times a day. Parlors come in many types and names, including flat barn, herringbone, parallel, swing, walk-through and rotary.
212 Applied Economics 3411/5411, 2018 Lecture Notes Copyright © 2018 Edward Usset. All rights reserved. Pasteurization: Pasteurization is a simple, effective method to kill harmful pathogens through heat treatment without affecting the taste or nutritional value of milk. Since its introduction over a century ago, pasteurization has been recognized around the world as an essential tool for protecting public health. The process was named after its inventor, French scientist Louis Pasteur.
- Spring '14
- Supply And Demand, Edward C. Usset