implications of this context in communications planning and knowledge management for guiding the project team. Project managers need to be cognizant of the project context and these new aspects when managing the integration. Then project managers can decide how to best use these new elements of the environment in their projects to achieve success.
68 Part 1 - Guide 3.5.4 INTEGRATION AND COMPLEXITY Some projects may be referred to as complex and considered difficult to manage. In simple terms, complex and complicated are concepts often used to describe what is considered to be intricate or complicated. Complexity within projects is a result of the organization’s system behavior, human behavior, and the uncertainty at work in the organization or its environment. In Navigating Complexity: A Practice Guide , these three dimensions of complexity are defined as: System behavior. The interdependencies of components and systems. Human behavior. The interplay between diverse individuals and groups. Ambiguity. Uncertainty of emerging issues and lack of understanding or confusion. Complexity itself is a perception of an individual based on personal experience, observation, and skill. Rather than being complex, a project is more accurately described as containing complexity. Portfolios, programs, and projects may contain elements of complexity. When approaching the integration of a project, the project manager should consider elements that are both inside and outside of the project. The project manager should examine the characteristics or properties of the project. Complexity as a characteristic or property of a project is typically defined as: Containing multiple parts, Possessing a number of connections between the parts, Exhibiting dynamic interactions between the parts, and Exhibiting behavior produced as a result of those interactions that cannot be explained as the simple sum of the parts (e.g., emergent behavior). Examining these various items that appear to make the project complex should help the project manager identify key areas when planning, managing, and controlling the project to ensure integration.
±± 69 4 PROJECT INTEGRATION MANAGEMENT Project Integration Management includes the processes and activities to identify, define, combine, unify, and coordinate the various processes and project management activities within the Project Management Process Groups. In the project management context, integration includes characteristics of unification, consolidation, communication, and interrelationship. These actions should be applied from the start of the project through completion. Project Integration Management includes making choices about: Resource allocation, Balancing competing demands, Examining any alternative approaches, Tailoring the processes to meet the project objectives, and Managing the interdependencies among the Project Management Knowledge Areas.
±± 70 Part 1 - Guide The Project Integration Management processes are: 4.1 Develop Project Charter— The process of developing a document that formally authorizes the existence of a project and provides the project manager with the authority to apply organizational resources to project activities.
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