Question 7a.It gave each state just one vote in Congress regardless of size, which allowed small states to wield the same authority as large ones. This was of course disliked by larger states, but it was not the main reason for shifting to the Constitution.b.The articles did require the unanimous vote of all states to amend them, which made change difficult—if not impossible. But this was far less important a factor in the need to replace the Articles than the inability of the central government to make crucial decisions and obtain and utilize vital powers. c.Correct answer. It gave Congress no power to regulate commerce or to enforce taxation, making the nation weak and ineffective regarding home and international matters.d.The Articles actually kept much of the power in the hands of the state. e.Under the Articles, Congress was granted the power to make treaties.Question 8a.The Ordinance did not address the nature of creating towns; rather, it focused on how a territory can become a state. b.Correct answer. A trailblazing document, the Northwest Ordinance broke new ground by prohibiting slavery in the Old Northwest, but it exempted slaves that were already there—meaning they would remain slaves since their status and location there predated the Ordinance. c.A territory had to reach a population of 60,000—not 30,000—to be admitted by Congress as a state. d.Only initially were western territories under the authority of the federal government. Once their populations grew to 60,000, they could be admitted to statehood with the same rights and privileges enjoyed by the original 13 (colonies) states. e.The Land Ordinance of 1785—and not the Northwest Ordinance—decreed that western lands should be sold to help cover the national debt.
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Question 9a.Comparatively speaking, the American Revolution was far less bloody and violent than its French counterpart would turn out to be. More than 40,000 Frenchmen were executed under the gory Terror of 1793–1794, while the king and queen were guillotined—acts that did not have corollaries in America. b.The American Revolution made an easy transition to peace and its results endured; the French faced an onslaught of counter-revolutionaries early on and ultimately ended in failure.c.Correct answer. Enlightenment notions of freedom, equality, and vesting political power in the people inspired both revolutions.d.The French had to overcome the power of both the church and a long-established aristocracy; the Americans did displace a far less entrenched Church of England but had no established aristocracy. e.Only France had to fear the princes and leaders along their borders, who might seize control of the country during and after its upheaval. Question 10a.Correct answer. The rebellion, led by Captain Daniel Shays, was a protest by debt-ridden farmers—many of whom, like Shays, were revolutionary war veterans—who were losing their land to foreclosures and tax delinquencies. They wanted the state to
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