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01 Fundamental Concepts of Physiology

Of multicellular living organisms claude bernard used

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of multicellular living organisms . Claude Bernard used the term in several works from 1854 to 1878. He summed up his idea as follows: The fixity of the milieu supposes a perfection of the organism such that the external variations are at each instant compensated for and equilibrated... All of the vital mechanisms, however varied they may be, have always one goal, to maintain the uniformity of the conditions of life in the internal environment ... The stability of the internal environment is the condition for the free and independent life. Claude Bernard (1813-1878)
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Maintaining a Constant Internal Environment is Essential to Life Body Temperature Regulation ~ Maintaining Constant Temperature at Home Blood Oxygen Regulation ~ Maintaining Constant Oxygen in Space Craft
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Fluid Compartments in the Body Extracellular Fluid is the Internal Environment for Cells
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Concentrations (in mM) of Selected Solutes in Body Fluids Extracellular Fluid Intracellular Fluid Plasma Interstitial Fluid Sodium 142 139 15 Potassium 4.2 4.0 140 Calcium 1.3 1.2 ~0.0001 Chloride 108 111 4 Amino acids 2 2 8 ATP ~0 ~0 5 Glucose 5.6 5.6 ~0 Protein 1.2 0.2 4 Urea 4 4 4 Solutes and Water Water Cell Membrane Capillary Wall
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Walter B. Cannon
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