3. Angel Island: San Francisco immigration center 4. Fordism: Early twentieth-century term describing the economic system pioneered by Ford Motor Company based on high wages and mass consumption 5. Scientific Management: A program that sought to streamline production and boost profits by systematically controlling costs and work practices 6. Industrial Workers of the World (IWW): Radical union organized in Chicago in 1905 and nicknamed the Wobblies; its opposition to World War I led to its destruction by the federal government under the Espionage Act. 7. Collective Bargaining: The process of negotiations between an employer and a group of employees to regulate working conditions. 8. New Feminism: Women's emancipation movement in the social, economic, cultural, and sexual spheres 9. Birth Control Movement: A reform movement espousing the idea that right to control of one's body included the ability to enjoy an active sexual life without necessarily bearing women. Emma Goldman and Margaret Sanger were the leaders of this movement 10. Society of American Indians: Founded in 1911, the Society of American Indians was a reform organization typical of the era. It brought together Indian intellectuals to promote discussion of the plight of Native Americans in the hope that public exposure would be the first step toward remedying injustice. 11. Social Legislation: A term orginating in Germany that referred to governmental action to address urban problems and the insecurities of working-class life 12. 17 th Amendment: (1913) Progressive reform that required U.S. senators to be elected directly by voters; previously, senators were chosen by state legislatures 13. Maternalist Reforms: Policies such as mothers' pensions designed to improve the living standards of poor mothers and children. 14. Muller vs. Oregon: A famous brief citing scientific and sociological studies to demonstrate that because they had less strength and endurance than men, long hours of labor were dangerous for women, while their unique ability to bear children gave the government a legitimate interest in their working conditions 15. Workmen’s Compensation Laws: Laws enacted to benefit workers, male or female, injured on the job. 16. Conservation Movement: Movement under President Theodore Roosevelt, who ordered millions of acres of land to be set aside as wildlife preserves and encouraged Congress to create new national parks. 17. 16 th Amendment: (1913) Legalized the federal income tax 18. New Freedom: Democrat Woodrow Wilson's political slogan in the presidential campaign of 1912; Wilson wanted to improve the banking system, lower tariffs, and, by breaking up monopolies, give small businesses freedom to compete 19. New Nationalism: the platform of the Progressive Party and slogan of former president Theodore Roosevelt in the presidential campaign of 1912; it stressed government activism, including regulation of trusts, conservation, and recall of state court decisions that had nullified progressive programs.
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