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Signs of cardiac tamponade ascites accumulation of

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Signs of Cardiac Tamponade : Ascites (accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity causing abdominal swelling), muffled heart sounds, jugular vein distension, heptomegaly, and pulsus paradoxus Infective endocarditis (no differences in Acute vs. Subacute) - Regardless of the type basic effects are the same- Microorganisms in the general circulation attach to the endocardium and invade the heart valves, causing inflammation and formation of vegetations on the cusps. These vegetations are large, fragile masses that affect the valve opening and closing -Drug users are at high risk for developing this- can also get into the blood stream through a central line of PICC S/S: Various new heart murmurs are common indicators as well as low-grade fever, anorexia, Splenomegaly, and CHF Aortic aneurism: a localized dilation and weakening of an arterial wall, aneurism may take multiple shapes -Patient with atherosclerosis, and older adults are at risk -Rupture leads to death Types of Shock Hypovolemic Shock - Loss of blood or plasma from the circulating blood In patients with burns: the inflammatory response leads to edema with shift of fluid and protein from the blood into surrounding tissues and continues loss from the burn wound area due to loss of skin Peritonitis: causes hypovolemia when infection and inflammation in the peritoneal membranes cause a fluid shift out of the blood into another compartment, the peritoneal space, a condition called “third spacing” Dehydration can reduce the circulating blood volume and blood pressure Septic Shock- Vasodilatation owning to severe infection Treatment: Support the patient through medication, outcome usually isn’t good Cardiogenic Shock - Associated with cardiac impairment that leads to decreased pumping capability of the heart Treatment: administering diuretics and medications to help the heart beat- this is the only type of shock that you need to limit IV fluids (don’t want an overload) Anaphylactic Shock- caused by allergic reaction and vascular space becomes bigger and puts fluid in the tissues Treatment: Treat reaction of the allergen and support the patient with epinephrine and
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antihistamines S/S: Constrictor of the airway leading to wheezing Symptoms of all the shocks - takes the blood pressure down and decreases cardiac output- confusion in the head, fast heart rate, arrhythmia, chest pain, weak thready pulse, pale and cold skin, kidneys hold on to the fluid which means output drops and stops causing metabolic acidosis Hypertension : “High blood pressure” Primary or essential: Bp consistently over 140/90 Secondary: Renal or endocrine diseases, or underlying problems such as diet and food Affects the target organs : kidneys, heart, brain, and retina Frequently asymptomatic in the early stages which can lead to problems if not controlled because of damage to the target organs Chapter 19: Respiratory Disorders Tuberculosis: an infection usually caused by mycobacterium tuberculosis and primarily affects the lungs, but the pathogen may invade other organisms as well Latent TB-
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